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Flashcards in TG - 1 Deck (98):
1

autistic triad

social interaction, communication, imaginative thought

2

fist sign at 1-2 years that indicates autism

speech delay

3

drugs given to autistic children

risperadone (agression) and meltonin (sleep)

4

how to differentiate autism from asbergers

later presentation and high IQ (autism have low IQ)

5

bronchiolitis caused by

respiratory syncytial virus

6

bronchiolitis age

2-6 months

7

how do you differentiate nappy rush from seborrhoea dermatitis

in nappy rash, the skin folds are spared

8

age at which pyloric stenosis may show

~ 8 weeks

9

normal feeding amount for baby

150ml per kg per day - more than this + vomiting think over feeding

10

baby with green vomiting think..

obstruction: duodenal obstruction or volvulus

11

major risk in premature babies <1500g

intraventricular haemorrhage - delayed cord clamping reduces risk

12

name for severe rhesus disease

hydrops fetalis

13

when is jaundice NOT normal in a baby

if within first 24 hours

14

what is respiratory distress syndrome

low surfactant => hard to breath => exhaustion => respiratory failure

15

steroids given to mothers of preterm

betamethasone and dexamethasone

16

retinopathy of prematurity is caused by what

prematurity and supplementary oxygen

17

loud harsh pan systolic blowing murmur

VSD

18

continuous machine murmur

patent ductus arteriosus

19

heart defect common in try 21

VSD

20

VSD treatment

most fix spontaneously, if big need surgery

21

treatment for patent ductus arteriosus

ibuprofen or surgery

22

tetralogy of fallot is

- pulmonary artery stenosis
- right sided hypertrophy
- VSD
- over riding aorta

23

2 heart defects that are cyanosyic

tetralogy of ballot and coarctation

24

URTI, stridor and barking cough

Croup

25

pathogens associated with croup

parainfluenza

26

Croup treatment

supportive + oral dexamethasone/prednisolone

nebulised adrenaline if respiratory distress

27

what is bacterial tracheitis

thick exudate that can block airway following recent croup

28

epiglottis cause by

haemophilia influenze type B (HIB)

29

epiglottis treatment

cefotaxime (given IV)

30

diphtheria treatment

diphtheria antitoxin and erythromycin

31

cough in epiglottis

not really

32

drooling and stridor

epiglottitis

33

coughing ending with vomiting

whooping cough (bordetella pertussis)

34

pneumonia treatment and alternative

amoxicillin
co-amox as alternative

35

haemolytic uraemia syndrome triad

haemolytic anaemia (broken up RBCs), thrombocytopenia, AKI

36

haemolytic uraemia syndrome is caused by what

E. coli 157

37

what would suggest E.coli 157 infection

bloody diarrhoea

38

haemolytic uraemia syndrome investigation

LDH - lactate dehydrogenase

39

what is Henöch-Schönlein purpura

Post URTI: IgA-mediated autoimmune hypersensitivity vasculitis affecting children aged 3 - 10 years

40

symmetrical erythematous macular rash on back of legs / buttocks / ulnar arms

Henöch-Schönlein purpura

41

investigations done in Henöch-Schönlein purpura

urinalysis (get nephritis)
WCC (eosinophilia)
ESR (high)
serum IgA (high)

42

Henöch-Schönlein Purpura treatment

usually self limiting, can give NSAIDS or steroids

43

Henöch-Schönlein Purpura complication

nephritis and less common intussusception,

44

abdo pain, joint pain, rash

Henöch-Schönlein purpura

45

investigations for DDH

USS if under 6 months (bones haven't ossified yet)

46

treatment for DDH

bracing or surgery if >6 months

47

what is perthes

AVN of femoral head leading to abnormal epiphyseal growth

48

boy <12 years with limp

perthes

49

what is SUFE

slipped upper femoral epiphysis

50

who gets SUFE

fat kids

51

SUFE presentation

fat kid with groin pain or knee pain

52

what is Hirschprungs disease

congenital megacolon: absence of rectal myenteric parasympathetic ganglia

53

who commonly gets Hirschprungs disease

downsyndrome

54

symptoms of Hirschprungs disease

delayed meconium >48 hrs, abdominal distention, vomiting

55

definitive investigation for Hirschprungs disease

rectal biopsy

56

Hirschprungs disease treatment

swenson resection and anastomosis

57

Hirschprungs disease complication

enterocolitis

58

what is reyes syndrome

encephalopathy and liver damage due to post-viral (usually flu or chicken pox) + aspirin in < 14 years

59

signs and symptoms of reyes syndrome

vomting, delirium, seizures, hyopcycaemia

60

investigations for lactose intolerance

- stool test pH <5.5 and carb malabsorption
- hydrogen breath test

61

adduction and internal rotation of the arm of baby

erbs palsy "waiters tip"

62

what is Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

complication that occurs 5-10 years after measles

63

rash seen in mouth in measles

Koplik spots

64

acute complication of measles

pneumonia

65

most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in children

minimal change

66

at what age should testes be descended

3 months and if not surgery required

67

pyloric stenosis treatment

Ramstedt pyloromyotomy

68

What is Kawasaki disease

type of vasculitis seen in children that causes coronary artery aneurysms

69

what will suggest Kawasakis disease

fever resistant to antipyretics

70

features of Kawasaki disease

- high-grade fever which lasts for > 5 days.
- conjunctival injection
bright red, cracked lips
- strawberry tongue
- cervical lymphadenopathy
- red palms of the hands and the soles of the feet which later peel

71

Kawasaki disease treatment

- high dose aspirin (monitor for reye disease)
- intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG)

72

First line investigation in kawasaki disease

Echo to look for aneurysms

73

episodic crying and drawing of the legs towards the chest

intussusception

74

target sign on abdo ultrasound

intussusception

75

red current jelly stool

intussusception: due to ischaemic damage

76

sausage like mass in right of abdomen

intussusception

77

intussusception treatment

barium or air enema , if this fails surgery required

78

lactose intolerance investigation

stool test or hydrogen breath test

79

what is investigation for muscular dystrophy (duchenne's and backers)

CK very high, muscle biopsy to look at dystrophin

80

difference in dystropinh in duchennes and beckers

Duchenne's = no dystrophin
beckers = abnormal dystrophin

81

gowers sign

duchenne's

82

age difference of symptom onset in duchennes and beckers

duchennes's = 3yrs
beckers = 10yrs

83

most common cause of otitis media

Strep. pneumoniae

84

otitis media treatment

supportive, give amor if persistent

85

otitis media wit effusion treatment

grommet or adenoidectomy if recurrent URTI

86

projectile vomit

pyloric stenosis

87

green vomit

obstruction

88

babies with pyloric stenosis will show what ABG results

metabolic alkalosis

89

pyloric stenosis treatment

ramstedt's/laparoscopic pyloromotomy

90

what bug causes scarlet fever

strep progenes (group A)

91

notifiable diseases

measles, scarlet fever, haemolytic uraemia syndrome

92

disease where you get facial sparing rash that feels like sandpaper

scarlet fever

93

strawberry tongue

scarlet fever

94

group A strep also called what

strep Pyogenes

95

scarlet fever treatment

penicillin/erythromycin

96

cough with vomiting

whooping

97

what causes whooping cough

bordetella pertussis

98

whooping cough treatment

supportive but can give erythromycin