The alimentary sytem-the liver Flashcards Preview

104:theme 1 > The alimentary sytem-the liver > Flashcards

Flashcards in The alimentary sytem-the liver Deck (31):

what is topography

The appearance/location of something


What is the topography of the liver?

Below the diaphragm
From t4/5 -right stomach
above colon
has a left lobe and larger right lobe
Falciform ligament


What are the 4 main functions of the liver

2-Prosynthesis/ metabolism-portal system
3- bile production-GI organ
4-Glycogen storage


Describe topography posteriorly

Inferior vena cava seen laterally, and gall bladder
2 add lobes- Quadrate and caudate lobe


What is the lesser omentum and functions

Ligament from liver to stomach
Encloses: Hepatic artery, portal vein, bile duct, lymph nodes
Its medial
origins- lesser curvature- Porta hepatis


What's the porta hepatis

The porta hepatis is a deep fissure in the inferior surface of the liver through which all the neurovascular structures
right and left hepatic ducts
right and left branches of hepatic artery
portal vein
Inferiorly- divides caudate and quadrate lobe


whats the bare area

No peritoneum- matt and opaque


Falciform ligament

Links diaphragm and abdominal wall to upper liver
Teres @ lower end


What is the round ligament

extends to umbilicus


Coronary ligament

to inferior surface of diaphragm


Blood supply

As its in foregut
Coelic artery supplies a lot- divides into- hepatic, splenic and left gastric


Porta hepatis -topography

@hilum of liver- visceral surface


What are the entries and exit to porta hapatis

Hepatic portal vein- deoxy blood, nutrients, drugs and toxins-from intestines

Hepatic artery proper- brings O2 blood

Common hepatic duct

lymph and nerves


Liver lobules-

according to how the hepatic portal veins and artey divide liver


Coinauds segments

Hepatic vein and artery subdivide liver


Portal triad

Hepatic artery
Portal vein
Bile duct


What does central vein drain

THe portal triads contents


Functions of hepatic cells

Synthesis & release plasma proteins into blood albumin, ie clotting factors

De-aminates amino acids-urea in blood

Bilirubin- Bile pigment & breakdown of the haemoglobin

Bile salts- Emulsification of fats


Venous drainage: ( portal vein next to hepatic artery)

Liver sinusoid- (disc epitheium and fenestrated)- serves as a location for mixing of blood from hepatic artery and portal vein
These drain into central veins
@ centre of hepatic lobule
These drain into sublobular- hepatic- IVC


Portal system anastomoses

Communications between some branches of portal and systemic systems- portocaval anastomosis

Allows collateral return of blood to heart


Portal hypertension

Portal vein blocked- varicoses and caput medusa- oesophageal varices


Name some vessel anstamoses

• Abdominal part of oesophagus: branches from the azygos vein (which is systemic) around the oesophagus link with some from the left gastric (portal)
• Upper abdomen: veins draining the kidneys (renal), diaphragm (phrenic) and lumbar area (lumbar) join with some from the colon, duodenum, pancreas and liver (portal)
• Umbilicus: epigastric veins (systemic) draining this area of the anterior wall join the paraumbilical veins (portal)
• In the anal canal region: the middle and inferior rectal veins (systemic) link with the superior rectal (portal)


Portacaval shunt- functions

Reduce hypertension
-Diverting blood from portal to systemic system
-From portal to IVC


Portal vein converys what % to liver



Bile secreted by

Hepatocytes to canaliculi


Bile from canaliculi to

Bile is initially secreted from hepatocytes and drains from both lobes of the liver via canaliculi, intralobular ducts and collecting ducts into the left and right hepatic ducts. These ducts amalgamate to form the common hepatic duct- join onto the cystic duct to form common bile duct and joins pancreatic duct
ampulla of vater
closed sphincter oddi
- duodenum and then to gall bladder


Right and left hepatic ducts supply

Relevant lobes and emerge from porta hepatis to form common hepatic ducts


Lymphatic drainage- where are lymph nodes

In porta hepatis


Where does lymph pass to from porta hepatis

to coelic nodes


Where does lymph drain to from coelic nodes

Cisterna chyli


Liver trauma- caused by what & solution & similar cases

Fractured ribs/penetrating wounds
bleeding exacerbated by- High vascularisation of liver-leading to severe haemorrhage

Resolve by- Removing segmental portions

Similar cases- liver biopsies, metastases, cirrhosis