Flashcards in The Anarchy and Henry FitzEmpress Deck (28):
When was Henry born and when did he ascend the throne?
Born in March 1133 and became king in December 1154
Who were Henry II's parents?
Geoffrey Plantagenet and Empress Matilda
What was Henry I to Henry II?
Grandfather (through Matilda)
Where was Henry II born in?
County of Anjou; town of Le Mans
What did Henry attempt in 1147 and what was the result?
He attempted to invade England with a small mercenary force.
King Stephen paid off his mercenaries and allowed Henry to cross the Channel back to Anjou
When had Geoffrey, Count of Anjou brought Normandy under Angevin control
When and why did Henry become Duke of Normandy?
In 1150, Geoffrey granted him the ducal title due to his Norman heritage
Which French house did Louis VII belong to?
House of Capet
Why was 1151 a significant year for Henry II?
Geoffrey, his father, died, leaving Henry to rule over Anjou
Why and when was Eleanor initially married to Louis VII?
Following death of her father, William X, Louis VI married Eleanor to his son in 1137 to bring Aquitaine under Capetian control
When and why were Eleanor and Louis divorced?
In 1152, as they failed to produce male heirs and had contrasting personalities
What was the result of Henry's marriage with the divorced Eleanor?
Made him Duke of Aquitaine and Gascony jure uxoris, and thus he ruled over half of France's land mass
2 political reasons for Louis VII's hostility to Henry
He was aware of the weakening of House Capet against the growth of Anjou, furthered by Henry's marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine
Henry's control of Aquitaine jure uxoris was that formerly harnessed by Louis
2 personal reasons for Louis VII's hostility to Henry
Henry and Eleanor, technically Louis' vassals, had never asked his permission to marry and thus were in defiance of royal authority
Louis saw Henry as an adversary who could eventually extend his grasp to the French throne - he already had more power than Louis
Who was Henry and Eleanor's first son and when was he born?
William of Pointiers, born 1153 and dies at the age of 2
Who was Eustace of Boulogne?
Stephen's son, fearful that Henry had the power to deny his succession to the English throne
When did Henry invade England?
Early 1153, after fighting off Louis VII in Aquitaine
When was Henry crowned king of England, and after what treaty?
19th December, following the Treaty of Winchester of the previous year and Stephen's subsequent death
What did King Stephen do as he became besieged in the Anarchy?
He neglected Henry I's peace-time administration, granting self-governance to barons who had ties to the House of Blois or Normandy
What was an adulterine castle?
Castles constructed without royal leave
What was the name of the mercenary companies used in the Anarchy of 1138 to 1153
What ended the Anarchy?
The treaty of Winchester, summer 1153
Why did growth of baronial power during the anarchy result in allegiance shifts
During the stalemate of 1141, barons changed their allegiances from House of Blois to Anjou (or vice versa) depending on the concessions Stephen of Matilda were prepared to grant
When did Eustace of Boulogne die?
How had royal income fallen at the start of Henry II's reign, compared to that of his grandfather
Averaged £7,000, compared to Henry I's £24,500
How did baronial power contribute to the deterioration of Stephen's royal authority?
After 1141, royalists barons became aware that Stephen lacked the resources to defeat Matilda. Thus they began to shift their allegiance in the stalemate
2 economic problems in England in 1154
Estimated that Stephen had yielded £3,000 of royal land to barons, lowering royal demesne
Growth of baronial power made Henry I's justice-in-eyre system ineffective - suspension of royal justice lowered royal income