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Flashcards in The Autonomic Nervous System Deck (64)
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1

What does the autonomic nervous system control?

Involuntary movements

2

How may the autonomic nervous system be divided?

The sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system

3

Which regions of the spinal column are associated with the sympathetic nervous system?

The thoracic and lumbar regions

4

Which branch of the autonomic nervous system is the vagus nerve generally associated with? Which organs does this influence?

The vagus nerve is generally associated with the parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system - it deals with parasympathetic control of the heart, lungs, and digestive tract

5

From which specific part of the spinal cord does the vagus nerve stem?

The 10th cranial nerve

6

What specific region of the spinal cord is associated with the parasympathetic nervous system?

The medullary portion

7

How do the pre-ganglionic and post-ganglionic structures differ in the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system?

In the parasympathetic branch the pre-ganglionic nerve is fairly long and stems deep into the peripheral nervous system, while its post-ganglionic nerve is far shorter - conversely, in the sympathetic branch the pre-ganglionic nerve is short and stems only slightly into the peripheral nervous system, while its post-ganglionic nerve stems the majority of the peripheral nervous system

8

Where specifically are the ganglia of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves located?

Parasympathetic ganglia are located in innervated tissues, while sympathetic ganglia are located in the paravertebral chain close to the spinal chord

9

Describe the myelination of pre- and post-ganglionic nerves in sympathetic and parasympathetic systems.

Both sympathetic and parasympathetic pre-ganglionic nerves are myelinated, while both sympathies and parasympathetic post-ganglionic nerves are unmyelinated

10

What neurotransmitter do pre-ganglionic nerves use? Is this the same in sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves?

Acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter used in pre-ganglionic nerves of both sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems

11

What receptors are situated on the post-ganglionic nerves?

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

12

What type of receptor are nicotinic acetylcholine receptors?

Ligand-gated ion channels

13

What type of receptor are adreno-receptors and muscarininc acetylcholine receptors?

They are all G protein-coupled receptors

14

What neurotransmitter do post-ganglionic nerves of parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve branches release?

Post-ganglionic nerves release acetylcholine in the parasympathetic branch, while they release noradrenaline in the sympathetic branch

15

What receptors are found on target tissues of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves?

Muscarininc acetylcholine receptors are found on target tissues of parasympathetic nerves (as their post-ganglionic nerves are cholinergic) and adrenoreceptors are found on target tissues of sympathetic nerves (as their post-ganglionic nerves are noradrenergic)

16

How does a ligand activate a G protein-coupled receptor?

It binds and causes an allosteric change, causing the G protein to release GDP and bind GTP, activating it

17

In which cases do sympathetic nerve fibres release acetylcholine onto their target tissue as opposed to noradrenalin?

Those innervation sweat glands and hair follicles

18

Where in the body do chromaffin cells reside?

In the adrenal medulla

19

What branch of the nervous system controls voluntary movement (opposite to the autonomic nervous system)?

The somatic nervous system

20

How does the sympathetic nervous system act differently at the adrenal medulla?

The post-ganglionic fibres differentiate of form chromaffin cells - instead of secreting neurotransmitter onto a target tissue, they secrete adrenalin into the bloodstream to act on a wide variety of target organs

21

Does the somatic branch of the nervous us have pre- and post-ganglionic nerve fibres?

No

22

In the somatic nervous system, list the neurotransmitter used, the type of receptor it acts on, and on which tissue these receptors are located.

In the somatic nervous system acetylcholine is used, which binds nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on the surface of skeletal muscle

23

Which muscarininc receptor is located at the heart? Which muscarininc receptor is located at the lungs?

M2 muscarininc acetylcholine receptors are located at the heart, while M3 muscarininc acetlycholine receptors are located at the lungs

24

Which gas is involved with penile erection?

Nitric oxide

25

What is the collective term used to describe disorders of the autonomic nervous system?

Dysautonomia

26

Which G protein-coupled receptors are associated with noradrenergic release at the heart and the lungs?

B1 adrenoreceptors at the heart and B2 adrenoreceptors at the lungs

27

What body specifically monitors the components of blood? How is this relayed to the CNS?

The carotid body can monitor the blood for O2, CO2, and pH, which it relays information on back to the CNS via the glossopharyngeal nerve

28

Where is all sensory information eventually localised?

The nucleus tractus solitarius

29

Which area can detect toxins and relays this information back to the nucleus tractus solitarius to induce chemically-induced vomiting?

The area postrema

30

State 4 distinct part of neurotransmission that are targeted by drugs.

- degradation of neurotransmitter
- interaction with the post-synaptic receptor
- re-uptake of neurotransmitter
- inactivation of the neurotransmitter