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Flashcards in The blind eye Deck (78):
1

Define blephar

pertaining to eyelid

2

Define dacryo

pertaining to NLS

3

Define Kerat

pertaining to cornea

4

Define Irido

pertaining to iris

5

Define cyclo

pertaining to ciliary body

6

define phac

pertaining to lens

7

Define hyalo

Pertaining to the vitreous

8

What are the most important layers/cells in the retina?

10 different layers, in path of light:
Ganglion cells (form optic nerve)
Cells in inner retina
Photoreceptors (cones/rods) in outer retina
RPE = Retinal Pigment Epithelium, outer-most layer

9

Describe RPE

Retinal Pigment Epithelium
The only non-neural layer of the retina
It is a nurturing layer (to rods/cones).

10

What are rods for?

low light levels - night vision

11

What are cones for?

high light levels and colour vision

12

What layer does Retina Pigmentosa affect?

RPE

13

What is the path of a neural stimulus of light?

Optic nn (L and R) --> optic chiasm (decussation of fibres, 66% in cats, 75% dogs) --> optic tract (L and R) --> Optic radiaiton --> cerebral cortex

14

What are the 2 broad causes of blindness?

Problem with path travelled by light OR problem with the path travelled by neural stimulus

15

Outline eyelid disease

severe drooping of upper eyelids/skin --> blindness
Especially sniffer dogs/spaniels/ heavy foreheads and ears

16

Tx - eyelid dz

'Stades' procedure (upper eyelid) - minor cases
Reduction of palpebral aperture
Face lift (rhitydectomy) - severe cases

17

What are the 2 types of corneal disease that can cause blindness?

Chronic and acute pathology

18

Describe chronic corneal problems --> blindness

scarring, visualisation, pigment deposition
- KCS
- LPI/pannus (dogs)
- EK (cats)
- Sequestra (dead piece of cornea, usually cats)

19

Outline acute disease --> corneal scarring

Ulcerative:
KCS-related
Traumatic
Progression of ulcers through melting (inflammation, infxn)

20

What eye problem affects 90% pugs?

Pigmentary keratitis, a corneal problem

21

Outline Pigmentary Keratitis

Pigmnt and chronic corneal irritation
- Especially pugs with entropion
- Can be blinding in

22

What is PPM?

Persistent Pupillary Membranes
= failure of regression of foetal BVs in AC
- congenital
- strands arise at collarette (thickest region of iris, separates pupillary portion from ciliary portion) and span either: iris to iris, iris to cornea (--> leukoma, slowly progressive) or iris to lens (--> cataract, usually progressive)

23

What is symblepharon?

Adhesions of conjunctiva onto itself and cornea

24

What animal does symblepharon affect?

Kittens affected with 'cat flu' (FHV-1, caliciviurs, bordatella)
--> corneal epithelial cell depletion (FHV-1)
--> advancement of conjunctiva over cornea
--> permanent focal or diffuse scar
* risk of FHV-1 recurrence later in life

25

What is the uvea made of?

it is a mesh of BVs, three parts:
- Iris
- ciliary body
- choroid

26

Function - choroid

feeds the outer retina which lies on top of it.

27

2 main features of uveitis. Name 4 others

* Inflammation --> leakage of plasma/blood
* Muscle contraction
- endothelial damage (--> corneal oedema)
- iris adhesions (to lens in pupillary zone = posterior synechiae or to cornea in ciliary zone = peripheral synechiae and closure of the ICA)
- Development of PIFMs --> can clog ICA (grow like ivy within the eye)
- Low IOP (one way to differentiate from glaucoma)

28

What are 3 infiltrations in uveitis

- turbid aqueous humor (flare)/ ventral AC (KPs)
- hypopion (WBC accumulation ventrally)
- hyphema (blood, small amount or entire AC)
- clots (in AC and/or vitreous)

29

What is the problem with mm contraction in uveitis?

- Pain (iris and CB mm spasm)
- Photophobia / miosis

30

What ocular problems (2) does hypertension in cats lead to?

hyphema or retinal detachment

31

What is the significance of uveitis? 5

- clogged/closed ICA --> secondary glaucoma
- posterior synechiae --> clouds pupil and visual axis
- secondary cataracts = cats, horses, less commonly dogs
- retinal detachment = leaks into space between layers 1 and 2

32

T/F: there is an intimate relationship between uveitis and cataracts

True :
- uveitis can lead to secondary cataracts (slowly progressive, can become mature. In cats, sometimes horses/dogs, can lead to lens luxation)
- Cataracts in their own right lead to a phacolytic uveitis (leakage of lens proteins (crystallines) into aqueous humor and loss of immune tolerance to this naturally encapsulation protein

33

What is phacoCLASTIC uveitis?

= Inflammation secondary to rupture of the lens capsule and release of lens proteins.

34

How is lens-induced uveitis classified?

- phacoLYTIC uveitis (non-granulomatous), secondary to lens leakage of denatured lens proteins from an intact capsule, usually during maturation or cataracts (think 'phacoLEAKY' because leaks proteins)
- phacoCLASTIC uveitis is Inflammation secondary to rupture of the lens capsule and release of lens proteins.

35

In which species does recurring uveitis occur most commonly?

horses and cats, can happen in any species though

36

Outline recurring uveitis

Primary insult (horses - leptospira, cats - Toxo, viruses) --> BOB breakdown --> anamnestic response triggered by epitopes and self-antigens. Most recurring uveitis are consdiered idiopathic

37

What is ERU?

= Equine Recurrent Uveitis, ' periodic ophthalmia' and 'moon blindness'

38

What can happen with chronic recurrent uveitis? 2

Cataracts and glaucoma

39

Tx principle - uveitis

Treat the cause if known/ possible/ apllicable

40

Which anti-inflammatories can be used to tx uveitis?

- TOPICAL - affect ulcer healing and diabetes, but effective. e.g. prednisolone acetate or dexamethasone phosphate, NSAIDS (don't affect diabetic control, may not be as effective)
- SYSTEMIC - don't affect ulcer healing if avascular, effective.

41

Name NSAIDs for topical uveitis tx

Ketorolac and Diclofenac etc.

42

Name systemic anti-inflammatories for uveitis tx

= for posterior uveitis, severe anterior uveitis, if not use topical
- STEROID: prednisolone tablets
- NSAIDs: meloxicam, carprofen, flunixin meglumine

43

What does the dose and length of tx depend on for uveitis tx?

- Dz prognosis
- CS severity
- initial response to tx
- topical tx starts with high frequency of application (4-6 times usually)
- recommended anti-inflammatory dose for systemic steroids/ NSAIDs
- severe immune-mediated dz may require immunosuppressive doses

44

Outline the use of a topical steroid in a diabetic post-cataract sx

- affects the pituitary-hypothalamic-adrenocortical axis
BUT
- high doses usually not necessary
- taper off occurs promptly
-many diabetics undergo cataract sx

45

Describe systemic hypertension in cats

- an uveal vasculopathy that can lead to blindness
- hyphema in AC and in vitreous
- retinal detachment (bullous)
- other end-organ diseases/ systemic problems

46

How can FIP/ FeLV/ FIV/ Toxo cause uveal vasculopathies that could lead to blindness?

Protein in AC, +/- lesions in the fundus +/- systemic dz

47

Where can material be located that is hazy in front o the pupil? 2

- cornea (no BVs)
- AC

48

How can fungal problems lead to uveal vasculopathies that can lead to blindness?

affects whole uvea, especially fundus.
- may affect RespT too
- Cripto in cats

49

How does leishmaniasis affect the eye? 3

--> panuveitis, keratitis and KCS (Mediterranean)

50

What is uveodermatological syndrome in dogs?

= aka VKH-lie syndrome
- severe anterior and posterior uveitis
- severe skin lesions (depigmentation, loss of hair and multiple skin lesions)
- immune-mediated dz against melanin precursors
- strong inflammation affects multiple areas where there is pigment

51

What does the CS fixed dilated pupil scream?

glaucoma due to chronic uveitis

52

What does coria refer to?

the pupil

53

Define isocoria

uneven sized pupil

54

Define dyscoria

an oddly shaped pupil

55

What is a cataracts and where can it be?

= an opacity in the lens that blocks the passage of light, ranges in size from dot to whole lens,
- any shape (punctate, linear, stellate etc)
- location (nuclear, cortical or equatorial)
- Ddx nuclear sclerosis

56

Describe congenital nuclear cataracts

causes usually unknown, most are non-progressive, rarely cause uveitis

57

Describe congenital PPM cataracts

- Most progress, mature cataract, and lens-induced uveitis
- PPMs arise from the iris colarette, an imaginary circle between the iridal part and the ciliary parts of the iris

58

What are the acquired types of cataracts?

1. inherited
2. DM (v. common in diabetic dogs)
3. perforation trauma (blunt trauma doesn't readily cause cataracts but can)
4. age related (usually slowly progressive)
5. hypocalcemia (rare in dogs, e.g. hypoparathyroid)
6. rabbits and cats (associated with E.cuniculi)
7. GPRA (end stage cases)

59

Describe diabetic cataracts

- rapid progression
- lens induced uveitis (conjunctival/episcleral hyperemia and low IOP)
- may lead to secondary glaucoma if unchecked (PIFMs)
- often show 'water clefts' on the anterior suture lines where lens material has dissolved.

60

What does a perinuclear cataracts look like?

Circular

61

Name 2 types of congenital vitreous problems

- persistent hyaloid vasculature
- failure of regression of foetal vasculature
* can --> cataracts and spontaneous haemorrhage
* rule out with eye ultrasound

62

Name 2 acquired vitreous problems

- syneresis (liquefaction)
- asteroid hyalosis (particular matter)

63

Describe syneresis

= an acquired vitreous problem, aka liquefaction
- may lead to retinal detachment in Shih-Tzus
- seen spontaneously with age and/or inflammation

64

Describe asteroid hyalosis

= particulate matter, calcium and cholesterol crystals fills the vitreous
- seen spontaneously, with age and/or inflammation
- often seen with syneresis in ultrasound
- if optically dense it will interfere with sight

65

Outline congenital retina dysplasia

- Inherited - cavalier, springer, others
- Malformed retina
- forms: mild/folds, multifocal and generalised (latter may --> retinal detachment)
- breeding advice recommended
- no tx

66

What is Collie Eye Anomalie?

= a choroidal hypoplasia in collies and shetland/sheepdogs lateral to the optic disc. It may be associated with a coloboma of the optic nerve head which may --> retinal detachment.
- Otherwise but usually associated with blindness
- breeding advice recommended
- no tx

67

Name 5 acute acquired retinal problems

- SARD = Sudden Acquired Retinal Detachment Syndrome
- IMR = Immune-mediated retinopathy
- GME = Granulomatous meningoencephalitis
- RDt = Bullous retinal detachment
- Toxic retinopathy

68

Describe SARD

= acute acquired retinal problem
- sudden onset
- bilateral
+/- PU/PD, cushings biochem
- fundus looks normal
- flat ERG due to sudden photoreceptor death
- no (safe) tx

69

Describe IMR

= acute acquired retinal problem
- similar to SARD but not Cushing's biochem
- ERG may be flat or not
- no tx (steroids if early but this is rarely seen)

70

What is GME and what are the forms?

= acute acquired retinal problem
- grized and optic nerve forms
- optic nerve head may or may not show haemorrhage
- ERG normal
- tx = steroids

71

What does bullous retinal detachment affect?

- cats with systemic hypertension
- rare form in dogs called 'steroid-responsive RDt'

72

What causes toxic retinopathy?

- cats with oral enrofloxacin
- high risk at doses >5mg/kg but never a zero risk
- not thought to happen with other fluoroquinolones
- no tx (reversal of signs possible if tx withdrawn right away)

73

In which animals is GPRA seen?

many dogs and occasionally in some cats

74

What is the end-result of GPRA?

Pan-retinal degeneration:
no pain, gradual loss of vision, night blind to day blind, no tx, all other dx may look like GPRA given time

75

List 2 chronic acquired retinal problems

- GPRA
- retinal atrophy

76

Name 3 CS of retinal atrophy

- hyperreflectivity of the tapetum
- marked attenuation of the retinal vasculature
- (late stage - cataracts)

77

Does GPRA hurt a lot?

No - it is progressive

78

Name 2 dz that can make cats acutely blind

- hyphema
- retinal detachment