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Flashcards in The Cell Deck (34):
1

What is in the cell theory?

1) all living things are composed of one or more cells
2) the cell is the basic unit of structure and function of live
3) all cells come from preexisting cells

2

What do prokaryotic cells lack?

Membrane-bound nucleus and organelles

3

A fluid, semi-permeable mosaic of lipid-bilayer embedded with proteins

Cell membrane

4

Cellular scaffolding

cytoskeleton

5

Composed of the cytosol and organelles

Cytoplasm

6

A specialized structure in the nucleus that functions in the synthesis of ribosomes

Nucleolus

7

Where proteins are processed for translation before being delivered to other parts of the cell

Endoplasmic Reticulum

8

Smooth or Rough ER: functions in lipid and hormone synthesis

Smooth ER (Rough ER functions in protein synthesis)

9

Where proteins are synthesized by translation

Ribosomes

10

What does the Golgi Apparatus do?

modify, store, and reroute products of ER

11

responsible for ATP synthesis

Mitochondria

12

Organelles that protect the cell

Lysosomes and Peroxisomes

13

What are other organelles only plants have?

Cell wall, chloroplast (w/ chlorophyll), and water vacuole

14

Consists only of genetic material and protein coat (capsid); replicates only in living cells

Viruses

15

Diffusion of water through semi-permeable membrane

Osmosis

16

Does water diffuse in or out of a cell in a hypertonic solution?

out (due to higher solute concentration)

17

What is the result of a hypotonic solution to cell?

Turgidity (plant) or lysis (animal)

18

What is facilitated diffusion?

when large molecules, polar molecules, and charged ions are moved with transport proteins

19

What is the result of a hypertonic solution to the cell?

shrinking/crenation (plant) or plasmolysis (animal)

20

Goes against concentration gradient and requires ATP

Active transport

21

Bulk transport where you move in to the cell

Endocytosis

22

Bulk transport where you move out of the cell

Exocytosis

23

What are the phases in the interphase?

G1, S, G2 (and sometimes G0)

24

What does the G1 phase ensure?

Cell is ready for DNA synthesis

25

Form of asexual reproduction in unicellular organisms

Binary Fission

26

What does Mitosis produce?

two daughter cells

27

What does Meiosis produce?

4 genetically unique haploid gametes

28

What condenses into chromosomes in the Prophase stage?

Chromatin

29

What do the spindle fibers pierce in the Metaphase stage?

Kinetochores

30

What forms in between the cells in the telophase stage?

Cleavage furrow (animals); Cell plate (plants)

31

How many chromosomes are there in a gamete?

23 chromosomes

32

Two identical sister chromatids that are attached before meiosis begins

Homologous chromosomes (homologs)

33

When does crossing over occur?

Prophase

34

Crossing over leads to what long term phenomenon?

Variation, leading to natural selection or evolution