Flashcards in The Cell Deck (34):
What is in the cell theory?
1) all living things are composed of one or more cells
2) the cell is the basic unit of structure and function of live
3) all cells come from preexisting cells
What do prokaryotic cells lack?
Membrane-bound nucleus and organelles
A fluid, semi-permeable mosaic of lipid-bilayer embedded with proteins
Composed of the cytosol and organelles
A specialized structure in the nucleus that functions in the synthesis of ribosomes
Where proteins are processed for translation before being delivered to other parts of the cell
Smooth or Rough ER: functions in lipid and hormone synthesis
Smooth ER (Rough ER functions in protein synthesis)
Where proteins are synthesized by translation
What does the Golgi Apparatus do?
modify, store, and reroute products of ER
responsible for ATP synthesis
Organelles that protect the cell
Lysosomes and Peroxisomes
What are other organelles only plants have?
Cell wall, chloroplast (w/ chlorophyll), and water vacuole
Consists only of genetic material and protein coat (capsid); replicates only in living cells
Diffusion of water through semi-permeable membrane
Does water diffuse in or out of a cell in a hypertonic solution?
out (due to higher solute concentration)
What is the result of a hypotonic solution to cell?
Turgidity (plant) or lysis (animal)
What is facilitated diffusion?
when large molecules, polar molecules, and charged ions are moved with transport proteins
What is the result of a hypertonic solution to the cell?
shrinking/crenation (plant) or plasmolysis (animal)
Goes against concentration gradient and requires ATP
Bulk transport where you move in to the cell
Bulk transport where you move out of the cell
What are the phases in the interphase?
G1, S, G2 (and sometimes G0)
What does the G1 phase ensure?
Cell is ready for DNA synthesis
Form of asexual reproduction in unicellular organisms
What does Mitosis produce?
two daughter cells
What does Meiosis produce?
4 genetically unique haploid gametes
What condenses into chromosomes in the Prophase stage?
What do the spindle fibers pierce in the Metaphase stage?
What forms in between the cells in the telophase stage?
Cleavage furrow (animals); Cell plate (plants)
How many chromosomes are there in a gamete?
Two identical sister chromatids that are attached before meiosis begins
Homologous chromosomes (homologs)
When does crossing over occur?