The Cell Cycle and Mitosis Flashcards Preview

Bio 100 (part 3) > The Cell Cycle and Mitosis > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Cell Cycle and Mitosis Deck (26):
1

What phase is the cell in?

Anaphase

Fourth Part of the Cycle

2

What phase is this cell in?

Cytokinesis

3

What phase is this cell in?

Interphase

4

What phase is this cell in?

Metaphase

5

What phase is this cell in?

Prophase

6

What phase is this cell in?

Telophase

7

What is cell theory?

Cell Theory:  All organisms consist of cells and arise from preexisting cells. This Requires that cells divide.

8

Describe Mitosis

•Mitosis—new daughter cells are generated.

Produces identical cells

DNA is doubled during the process, and then divided to an identical amount in the two cells.

For growth and replacement

9

Describe Meiosis

•Meiosis—gametes are generated for sexual reproduction.

Produces cells that are partially different genetically.

Net result is that the hereditary information reduced by one half.

For producing reproductive cells (gametes).

10

What is prokaryotic cell cycle is called _______

Binary fission

11

What is this a diagram of?

Prokaryotic (Bacterial) cell cycle

•single circular chromosome •replication of circular DNA •cell membrane and wall grow •cell wall and membrane fuse

12

Express the purpose of mitosis in eukaryotes.

•To increase the number of cells and to distribute the parent cell’s genetic material to daughter cells during cell division –Prior to mitosis each chromosome is copied •Doubles the DNA content –During mitosis, one copy is distributed to each of the two daughter cells. •DNA content per cell returns to that identical to parent cell

13

Replication is intiated at _____ along the length of eukaryotic chromosomes

DNA is copied in _____ direction(s) from ______ origin(s)

many points, both, multiple

14

Define chromatin

•chromatin –DNA with packaging proteins

15

Define histones

•histones –proteins that DNA wraps around for packaging

16

Define chromatid 

•chromatid –one double stranded DNA molecule, with packaging protein (before replication)

17

Define sister chromatids

•sister chromatids –identical DNA double strands after replication

18

Define centromere

•centromere –region of a duplicated chromosome that holds the two sister chromatids together

19

Define 
homologous chromosomes



 

•homologous chromosomes –Each individual has two copies of each type of chromosome (n types, 2n total chromosomes)

20

How many chromosomes, DNA double helices, and chromatids are there in the unreplicated chromosome and replicated chromosome?

Unreplicated Chromosomes

Number of Chromosomes: 4

Number of DNA double helices: 4 

Replicated Chromosomes

Number of Chromosomes: 4

Number of DNA double helices: 8

Each chromatid has 1 DNA double helix

21

Explain the parts of the “cell cycle” and express the two key events that occur during the cycle.

•The orderly sequence of events that occurs: –from the formation of a eukaryotic cell, –through the duplication of its chromosomes, –to the time it undergoes division  •During the cycle, two key events are: –Replication of the DNA in chromosomes –Partitioning the copied chromosomes to the two daughter cells

22

Recognize and describe visual markers of cells in interphase, prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.

IPMAT

 

23

  Taxol is a drug that stabilizes spindle fibers and prevents them from shortening so that treated cells fail to complete mitosis.  At which phase of mitosis are cells treated with taxol likely to stop?

a.interphase b. prophase c. metaphase d. anaphase e. telophase

C. Metaphase

24

Explain why taxol is an “anticancer” drug and the effects of cancer chemotherapy

•Because it stops cell division •It is a cell cycle specific drug •Cancer cells are relatively rapidly dividing

25

Which phase of the cell cycle is represented?

 

Metaphase

26