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Flashcards in The Changing Economic World Deck (65):
1

define development

- a positive change that makes things better.
- usually people's standard of living & quality of life improve as a country develops

2

what factors affact the rate of development in a country

- environmental (natural hazards ie Haiti is corrupt & plagued w earthquakes)
- economic (trade/ debt)
- social (access to clean water/ education - population is unhealthy)
- political (stable government/ civil war)

3

define the development gap

difference in standards of living btwn world's richest 7 poorest countries

4

give examples of how to measure development

- economic (GNI)
- social (standard of living)
- combination (HDI)

5

what is GNI

total value of goods & services produced by a country plus money earned from & paid to other countries. usually shown as per head (per capita) of the population

6

name strategies of how to close the development gap

- investment
- tourism
- debt relief
- fair-trade

7

describe how investment helps to close the development gap

- TNC spends money in a foreign country ie investing in infrastructures and developing new industries
- leads to the creation of new jobs for locals
- locals invest into the local economy & pay tax, spent improving healthcare/schools leading to a healthier more educated population (MULTIPLIER EFFECT)

8

what is the multiplier effect

- company/country spends money in foreign country ie investing in infrastructures and developing new industries
- leads to the creation of new jobs for locals
- locals invest into the local economy & pay tax, spent improving healthcare/schools leading to a healthier more educated population

9

describe how tourism helps to close the development gap

- makes country more appealing to tourists ie beaches/tropical landscapes
- adapt businesses to fit tourism so ppl in other counties travel to spend money there
- leads to investment/ increased overseas income bringing in more money & multiplier effect

10

describe how fair-trade helps to close the development gap

- ensures producers in smaller countries get a fair deal for their products
- improves quality of life of farmers
- farmer gets all the money from product to support their family/spend in local economy (multiplier effect)

11

describe how debt relief helps to close the development gap

- developing countries agree to have their debts wiped by richer countries if there will be no future corruption
- government doesn't need to repay debts so can spend it on improving infrastructure/ quality of life for citizens
-

12

what are the uk's main trade links

- US, Germany, Switzerland are main export buyers
- Germany, China, USA are main import customers

13

what are the uk's main culture links

- TV exports from UK worth £1.3 bill e.g downton abbey/Dr. Who
- 41% TV exports from UK go to USA

14

what are the uk's main electronic communications links

- internet/social media
- submarine cables
- arctic cables (improves connection to japan)

15

what are the uk's main transport links

- Southampton port
- international airport i.e gatwick
- channel tunnel (to France)

16

describe the difference between the north and south of the UK

-avg house price N: £130,000 S: £265,000
-life expectancy N lower by 2 years than S
-N has more poverty than S

17

reasons for the north-south divide

- deindustrialisation mainly happened in N which lead to unemployment
- London & south east is where growth in service sector mainly occured

18

describe the land type/use and rate of employment in the north

- mountainous
- higher rates of unemployment
- people move south to find work
- lower house prices (demand is lower)

19

describe the land type/use and rate of employment in the south

- flat, fertile farm land
- higher employment rates & population growth
- higher house prices (demand is higher)

20

describe what the government has done to help reduce the north-south divide

- 39 LEPs (local enterprise partnerships) in UK (voluntary partnerships btwn councils & businesses) they encourage companies to invest boosting the economy
- enterprise zones

21

describe what the government has done to help reduce the north-south divide

- 39 LEPs (local enterprise partnerships) in UK (voluntary partnerships btwn councils & businesses) they encourage companies to invest boosting the economy
- 24 enterprise zones in UK. they encourage new buinesses to set up = new jobs in areas where no businesses were before
---business discounts over 5 years & loans to support machinery
---superfast broadband

22

how have improvements to ports helped to reduce the regional difference

"Liverpool 2" (deep-water dock for container ships)
- will be 1.5 mill containers each year
- will boost trade in the north

23

how have improvements to rail helped to reduce the regional difference

"HS2" £50 bill train line to "northern powerhouse" (manchester)
- costs £50 bill
-technology will be outdated when it will be opened (2033)
-not the north
-people have had to houses for the railway to be built

24

how have improvements to aeroplanes helped to reduce the regional difference

- plans to expand heathrow's 3rd runway
- government argue money would 'trickle down' to the north
-would be better to expand northern airports
- concerns over environmental issues

25

how have improvements to road helped to reduce the regional difference

£15 bill project
-100 new roads by 2020
-1300 miles of new roads
-creates jobs
-A1 (from london to edinburgh) NE & South improvements
-but A1 to scotland road still a single lane

26

benefits of being in the commonwealth

- employment (provides job opportunities for poorer countires)
- promotes education (scholarships & bursaries for unis)
- millitary assitance (training/advice from other countires givej so they can defned themselves)
-promotes democracy (elections are monitored so are fair & population is represented properly)

27

what is the commonwealth

- volunary group of 53 counties all once british colonies, rich & poor across the world
- home to 2.2 billion people
- gives advice on issues ie human rights & economic development
- aims to acheive sistainable development

28

how does the EU affect the UK

- financial support for farmers (£18 mill available t uk dairy farmers is 2015 through Common Agricultural Policy)
- biggest single market in the world (cheap imports/exports as goods/services can move freely btwn states)
-high unemployment rates in poor EU countries case mass migration of workers to uk (in 2013 200,000 eu migrants came to uk causing competition for housing/ tesion w locals)

29

locate a sustainable place

northumberlandia is in northumberland, north east of England
in a 46 acre community park with free public access & 4 miles of footpaths on & around land form

30

what is northumberlandia

a human land-form sculptutre of a reclining lady
made of 1.5 mill tonnes of rock/clay/soil
quarter of a mile long; 100 feet high
cost was £3 mill

31

why was northumberlandia built

- blagdon estate & the banks group wanted to dig for coal & fire clay
- recovering much needed coal for UK energy generation.
- built as part of the restoration of the adjacent Shotton surface coal mine
- is an open-shaft mine so they're trying to cancel out any environmental damage from human activity extracting the coal

32

how is modern industry being more sustainable

northumberlandia
- uses natural resources around them (clay & rock)
- provides jobs in the short term (mining)
- providing a use for land damaged by humans

33

name 3 high income countries and say why they have this level of income

- switzerland (good political system)
- quatar (oil)
- australia (natural resources/ has cheap labour)

34

name 3 lower income countries and say why they have this level of income

- North Korea (has a dictator)
- Afghanistan (has war)
- Nepal (lack of trade & many natural disasters)

35

how would a DECREASED birth rate measure development

in richer countries, contraception is more widely used as women want a career before they start a family

36

how would a DECREASED death rate measure development

more/better healthcare
less wars
less disease

37

how would a INCREASED people per doctor measure development

more educated doctors = more jobs
lower population
better education system and health system

38

what is HDI and what does it use to measure the total

human development indicator. it links wealth to health and education
it uses: life expectancy at birth, number of years of education, GNI per head
measure from 0-1 (1 is the highest)

39

what are the linitations of economic/social factors

- a single measure can give a false picture as gives average for whole
-data may be out of date
- could be unreliable data bc of corrupt governments

40

how could birth rate be unreliable

rich people may have big families:
- religrious reasons
- status symbol
- carry on family business

41

how could life expectancy be unreliable

rich diseases (cholesterol/ obesity)
they cant afford healthcare (america)

42

explain what happens at stage 1 of the demographic model & why

- high death rate
- population is fairly stable due to:

--high infant mortality rate
--lots of disease
--poor nutrition/hygeine

43

explain what happens at stage 2 of the demographic model & why

- birth rate remains high
- death rate decreases
- population starts to grow

--people have more than 1 child in case it dies
--improved healthcare & hygeine

44

explain what happens at stage 3 of the demographic model & why

- death rate continues to increase
-birth rate drops rapidly
- population still grows

--better nutrition
--industrial revolution

45

explain what happens at stage 4 of the demographic model & why

- low death rate
- birth rate fluctuates
- population is fairly stable

--women have children at later age (want a job)
--improved healthcare & birth control

46

explain what happens at stage 5 of the demographic model & why

- birth rate very low & falls below death rate
- death rate increases slightly
- low birth rate
- total population starts to decrease

--widespread birth conrtol
--aging population

47

reasons AGREEING quality of life in Nigeria have improved

STATS (1990 THEN 2013)
-overall improvement to life expectancy (46 then 52)
-increased access to technology (0 then 73 m.phone subscriptions per 100 ppl). so businesses grow as can communicate/trade w rest of world easier
-secondary school enrollment (%) improved (25 then 44) meaning better job opportunities as been educated properly

48

reasons DISAGREEING quality of life in Nigeria have improved

STATS (1990 THEN 2013)
-less progress in maternal care (44% births attended by skilled health staff in 2010 then 38% 2013)
-access to sanitation facilities worsened due to overcrowding/slums (in 1990 37% of pop have access then 28% in 2013)

49

what happens in the pre-industrial phase of the Clark fisher model

postindustrial places are places which haven't had their industrial revolution yet
- most jobs will be agricultural, rarely anything else
- subsistence farmers (farming to live not sell) will be most of the people's occupation
- ie Chad and Sudan

50

what happens in the industrial phase of the Clark fisher model

when industrial revolution happens
-ppl start to migrate from rural to urban areas (urbanisation)
-industry/factory jobs increase
-tertiary sector starts to rise & large increase of secondary sector

51

what happens in the post-industrial phase of the Clark fisher model

when deindustrialisation is happening:
-manufacturing jobs decline
-dominance of service sector jobs
-standard of living increases
-wealthy countries ie USA

52

how could infant mortality rate be unreliable

genetic diseases may be in rich countries

53

what is the gloabl imbalance around the world

-global imbalance btwn rich & poor ie middle east/parts of africa have lower levels of development/poorer quality of life than richer western countries ie UK/USA
-imbalances within countries ie considerable poverty in UK & USA & great wealth in poorest countries

54

why are some countires poorer than others

HUMAN
-civil war/corrupt governments
-TNCs only invest in well educated countries. no trade = no money & jobs
-colonialism (civil war within the colonies as they were stripped of natural resources & we took ppl as slaves so they don't know how to fairly rule their country)
PHYSICAL
-type of natural resources (high value ie oil in Qatar/low value commodities ie sugar/coffee in )
-natural hazards
- climate (hot climate so subject to drought = famine, no food & no jobs)
-coastlines/location (landlocked so can trade easy)

55

consequences of uneven development INEQUALITY IN WEALTH

-USA has just over 5% of worlds population by 35% of its wealth
- India 16% of worlds population but 2% of its wealth
-

56

consequences of uneven development INEQUALITY IN HEALTH

PG 8

57

consequences of uneven development INEQUALITY IN INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION

PG 8

58

locate jamaica

-one of the largest islands in the west indies
- near to the islands of Cuba & Haiti
- below north america

59

why is Jamaica in need of development

all over a long period of time:
- slow growth of economy
- debt
- high unemployment

60

how has Jamaica's development gap been reduced because of tourism

- 24% of Jamaica's GDP came from tourism in 2014
- tourism generated $2 bill per year from tourists as income
- tourism provides jobs for 200,000 people
- 2.5 mill tourists per year spend $120 per day

61

explain why tourism has been an appropriate strategy to reduce the development gap in Jamaica

-tourism generates taxes, employment and income
-this means more money is being spent in local businesses & these people can improve their lifestyle
-they would then invest this into their local economy again and pay taxes
- the taxes would be spent improving infrastructure and education reducing the development gap

62

describe the main tourist attractions in Jamaica

- rich cultural heritage
- warm sunny climate
- beautiful beaches

63

what problems has tourism brought jamaica

- locals rely on the supply of water to survive but hotels who accommodate tourists are using this supply (tensions with tourists)
- footpath erosion excessive waste & harmful emmisions

64

describe the distribution of LICs

- concentrated in central Africa
- generally below the Brandt line

65

why would HDI be a more accurate measure of development than any other factor

- its a composite method which combines 3 different indicators (life expectancy, GNI per person and literacy rates)
- easier to compare with other countries as it is one value (multiple individual values don't need to be compared separately)
-smooths out any inequalities