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Flashcards in The Circulatory System 2 Deck (27)
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1

What are the 3 parts of the circulatory system

The blood
The heart
The blood vessels

2

What does blood do

Transports oxygen to all structures of the body, carries carbon dioxide and waste products to be removed

3

Blood consists of the following 4 components

Red blood cells
White blood cells
Platelets
Plasma ( the above are suspended in plasma)

4

Red blood cells

Produced in the red bone marrow.
Contain haemoglobin which binds to oxygen and has a pigment which gives rbc its colour.
Blood volume consists of 40% rbc’s

5

White blood cells

Transparent and do not contain haemoglobin
Produced in red bone marrow
Are the cells of the immune system, destroy harmful bacteria to fight infection

6

Platelets

Platelets are cell fragments
Release chemicals to promote blood clotting

7

Plasma

Straw coloured liquid portion of the blood
Consists of water, proteins, electrolytes,nutrients and waste products

8

The upper chambers in the heart are called

Atria, which receives the blood via the veins from different parts of the body and pumps the blood down into the ventricles

9

The bottom chambers in the heart are called

Ventricles, which push the blood to its various destinations hence they have larger muscular walls

10

What are the names of the valves which separate the atria and ventricles

Atrioventricular valves

11

Which valves prevent the flow of blood back into the left ventricles and right pulmonary valve during ventricular relaxation

The semi lunar valves

12

Ventricular contraction is called

Systole

13

Ventricular relaxation is called

Diastole

14

Arteries always carry blood......

Away from the heart

15

Veins always carry blood .......

To the heart

16

What is the name of the hearts pacemaker

The sinoatrial (SA) node which initiates the cardiac muscle contraction. Located in the wall of the right atrium

17

The myocardium ( heart muscle ) is stimulated to contract.....

72 beats per minute by the SA node

18

What are the 3 types of blood vessels

Arteries
Capillaries
Veins

19

Define arteries

Muscular tubes with thick walls
Can contract to squeeze blood away from the heart

20

Define capillaries

Extremely thin walls, allow diffusion of nutrients and gases through their walls.

21

Define veins

Thinner walled tubes compared to arteries with little muscular contractility
Carry blood from the tissues back towards the heart

Carry blood under low pressure therefore have valves

22

What is venous return

The return of blood back to the heart via the veins

23

Factors that assist venous return are

Gravity
Non return valves
smooth muscle contraction ( peristalsis)
Skeletal muscle contraction
Diaphragm- produces a suction effect on the veins
Right atrium helps to suck the blood back

24

What is hypertension

Higher than normal pressure at rest

25

What is systolic blood pressure

The pressure exerted on the artery walls when the cardiac muscle is contracting and pumping blood

26

What is diastolic blood pressure

The pressure exerted on the artery walls when the heart is in a relaxed state

27

Long term effects of exercise on blood pressure

Endurance training can decrease systolic and diastolic blood pressure in mild to moderate hypertensives