Flashcards in The Crises Of 1399-1405 Deck (14):
What were the long-term causes of Richard II’s deposition (3)?
1. The government’s unpopularity and growing class tension - heavy taxation, poll tax from 1378 and the Statute of Labourers (1350) - Peasant’s Revolt 1381
2. Mismanagement of royal funds - AoB marriage cost 80k florins as a loan to Wenceslas IV and excessive patronage: De Vere made ‘Marquess’ and DoI - royal debt at wartime
3. Lack of HYW success and suspicions of pro-French leanings - French raids on south coast, ‘Richard of Bordeaux’, spent much of childhood in France - lack of faith in gov.
What were the short-term causes of Richard II’s deposition (3)?
1. Reputation damage after WoP 1386 - P sought dlP’s removal bef. granting further taxation, R refused and threatened to seek French help against his disloyal subjects - population’s trust faded quickly
2. Lack of an heir - AoB marriage childless, remarriage with Isabella who was 7, marriage would be unconsummated for at least 7 years - nobles were wary of another child-king, more open to Henry IV
3. R’s unpredictable vengefulness - attacked the ‘Lords Appellant’ of 1388 in 1397: Warwick, Arundel and Gloucester arrested - nobility feared increasing tyranny
What were the reasons for Henry IV’s usurpation of the throne (2)?
1. Personal conflict - R tried to isolate Henry: not chosen as an ambassador to Scotland in 1394 and was exiled with Thomas Mowbray in 1398 for his role at Radcot Bridge - personal resentment
2. Richard has broken a promise - three days after JoG’s funeral, Henry heard that R had revoked his pardons and confiscated his inheritance, Henry was also branded a traitor and exiled for life - R had humiliated Henry an illegally seized his rightful property
Where did Bolingbroke land, where was Richard at the time, what happened to Richard and when was Henry crowned?
Henry landed in the Humber Estuary in July 1399.
Richard was away campaigning in Ireland, he heard of the invasion on the 10th but returned only on the 23rd.
Richard was imprisoned in the ToL and writs for a parliamentary assembly were issued in his name. He was murdered in in February 1400, a month after the Epiphany revolt
Henry was crowned on 13th October.
What was the epiphany revolt?
- Ricardian supporters, including earls of Kent and Salisbury, conspired to murder Henry IV and his sons during the Christmas revelry at Windsor.
- Henry was forewarned and escaped, conspirators fled and many were murdered by townsfolk.
When and how did Glyndwr’s rebellion start?
- September 1400 in Glyndyfrdwy
- Glyndwr had a dispute with Lord Grey of Ruthin - the town and castle of Ruthin were attacked and burned
Why was Henry’s response to the Welsh rebellion complicated?
- Poor weather
- Attacks by Welsh Guerillas
- Failure to force open battle
What happened to Edmund Mortimer IV, the uncle of the young Earl of March?
Edmund Mortimer IV was captured by Glyndwr and he switched his loyalties to the Welsh, proclaiming the earl of March to be the rightful King.
What measure was taken by Henry in September 1402?
All exports of armour and food to Wales were stopped and Welsh men were no longer permitted to bear arms, hold offices, castles or public meetings.
What were the reasons for the Percy family’s growing discontent with Henry IV’s rule (3)?
- Henry’s interf. in family affairs - H demanded that no prisoners of the battle of HH be ransomed without his permission: Northumberland handed his prisoners over, Hotspur didn’t - caused tension
- Henry’s demands on the Percies - H refused to allow Hotspur to negotiate a ransom for Edmund Mortimer IV, his brother-in-law - further increased tension between Hotspur and Henry
- Financial and political disagreements - Hotspur and the earl requested more prompt funding for Scottish campaigns and wished for a settlement with the Welsh - Henry’s payments remained inconsistent and no settlement was negotiated
What were the features of Hotspur’s rebellion?
- Hotspur and the earl of Worcester issued proclamations against Henry and pledged their allegiance to Richard
- They were defeated at the Battle of Shrewsbury
- Henry Hotspur Percy’s body was displayed before burial
How did Henry use international diplomacy to ensure his survival (3)?
- Henry’s daughter Blanche married Ludwig, the eldest son of Rupert, King of the Romans, forming an alliance with a powerful kingdom
- Henry’s daughter Philippa married the King of Noway, Sweden and Denmark, giving him greater influence in negotiations with the Hanseatic League; a confederation that dominated Baltic maritime trade
- His own marriage to Joan of Brittany - formed an alliance with Brittany, a region independent of France
What were two other factors that aided Henry’s survival on the throne?
- Henry removed alternate claimants to the throne - the earl of March was guarded closely to prevent him from being kidnapped and used as a figurehead for rebellion
- Henry could guarantee a stable succession: Henry V was an adult and an experienced leader