The Expansion of the British Empire in Africa (1) Flashcards Preview

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When did British interest in Egypt change?

1875, Suez canal was built in 1869 and Britain had a 44% (£4m) share in it. Wanted to protect their gateway to India.
1876 Egypt goes Bankrupt


Why did Britain invade Egypt?

In 1881, there was a nationalist uprising against the Ottoman Empire rulers. The British feared that a liberated Egypt could be influenced by other European powers and their foothold would be jeopardised.


What did Britain do in Egypt?

June 1882, Britain invaded Egypt and stopped the revolts, the Khedive Tewfik was given a figure-head position, Evelyn Baring was made the actual ruler (Consul-General) and a 'veiled protectorate' was established. (Client State)
By mid-1880s Britain took more than 75% of its trade and provided for half of its imports


How did British influence in West Africa develop?

Started with a foothold on the Golden Coast, Gambia, Sierra Leone and Nigeria. Nigeria for its palm oil. The British Colony of Nigeria emerged in 1885, after the Berlin conference and Free Trade was agreed to along the River Niger.


What was European influence like in West Africa?

France wanted to create a French West African Empire from Sengal, which put pressure on British interests on the River Niger. In 1884, Germany seized Togoland and Cameroon. Belgium setup the Congo Free State in 1885 for the rubber trade. In 1885, the Berlin conference saw free trade and British interests on the River Niger were recognised.


How did British interests in East Africa develop?

Britain had vital economic interests in Zanzibar, where imported goods from Britain and India which contributed £2 million to Britain - mostly leather and textile goods from Manchester and Sheffield Steel. 1888, Sir William MacKinnon launched the Imperial British East Africa Company. Increased presence led to expansions into Uganda, Kenya and Somaliland.


What were initial relations with the Boers?

In 1877, the Boers asked for British help against the Zulu tribes. The British annexed the Transvaal. 1881, Boers attack British at Majuba Hill, British defeated, British sign Pretoria convention and are forced into suzerainty.


Why did the situation change in South Africa?

In december 1885, Bechuanaland is made a protectorate to prevent Boer settlers uniting with German settlers. In 1886, gold was discovered in the Transvaal and 'Uitlanders' flooded in.
1895 With the support of Cecil Rhodes, Jameson the chief of British South Africa Company and 500 troops attacked the Transvaal to spark an uprising against the Boers. The attack failed, Rhodes resigned as Prime Minister


How was the scramble for Africa impressive?

From 1880-1890, 90% of Africa was claimed by European powers. Britain gained 5 million square miles.


What investments did Britain put into Egypt?

By 1870s, 40% of Egypt’s imports came from Britain
Alexandra becomes major port. 1,000 miles of railway laid. Arms bought. Schools, roads, public buildings, Egypt foreign debt grew from £3 million to £100 million. By 1875, Egypt had a 'debt crisis'.


When was Cape Colony seized by the British?



What happened in Sudan?

Charles Gordon was sent to act as Governor-General of Sudan between 1877-1880. He faced opposition from Muhammad Ahmed, who in June 1881, declared himself proclaimed himself Mahdi and created a jihadist army. Gladstone ordered a retreat from Khartoum in 1884 but were over-run in Jan 1885. General Gordan was beheaded.


Wars with the natives?

Xhosa War 1877-1878 - Disarmed tribesmen and annexed their territory to the Cape
Zulu War - Invasion of Zulu land in 1879 and defeat of Zulus at Ulundi in 1879


Movement of the Griqua

Discovery of diamonds at Kimberly in 1867 created a 'diamond rush' which lead to the British annexation of Basutoland in 1868, later 2000 Griqua trekked east to establish Griqualand East in 1873 however this was annexed by the British in 1874.


British presence in SA in 1857?

Cape Colony (100,000 whites)


Strategic importance of Suez Canal?

Suez Canal – speedier movement of troops to India under threat of Russian invasion - Presence in Mediterranean meant that the Ottoman Empire could be supported and was a buffer to any future Russian expansion