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Flashcards in The Growing Environment Deck (127)
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1

Below what temperature does a vine go dormant?

10 ° C

2

Define climate.

The annual weather pattern of an area averaged over several years.

3

Define "Cool Climate" and give examples.

Regions with an avg temp during the growing season of below 16˚ C, in which early ripening varieties (Chard, PN) will just ripen 

Ex.: Champagne, the Mosel, Southern England, Anderson Valley, Tasmania, parts of Carneros.

4

Define "Moderate Climate" and give examples.

  • Regions with an avg. temp. during the growing season btwn 16.5 - 18.5˚ C.
  • Suited to the production of med bodied wines from intermediate ripening varieties such as C. Sauvignon, Merlot, and Sangiovese.
  • Ex.: Bordeaux, Northern Rhone, Rioja, most of Piemonte and Tuscany. Also Coonawarra, Marlborough, and the more moderate parts of Napa and Sonoma.

5

Define "Warm Climate" and give examples.

Regions with an average mean temperature during the growing season between 18.5 - 21˚ C. These are suited to heat loving varieties such as Ruby Cabernet, Mourvedre, and Grenache. Often, fortified wines such as Port and Liqueur Muscat are produced Examples include the Southern Rhone, Jerez, McLaren Vale, Paarl, and the Douro.

6

What is "Continentality"?

Continentality is the difference between the average mean temperature of the hottest month and the coldest month. Where the difference is large, climates are continental. When they are small, climates are maritime.

7

Define "Maritime Climate" and give examples.

Characterized by low annual range of temperatures combined with relatively high levels of rainfall. The ripening period is reasonably long with moderate temperatures. These are usually found near large bodies of water. Rainfall during the growing season tends to be higher than either Mediterranean or Continental climates, and this brings extra cloud cover: this coupled with moderate temperatures make maritime climates ideal for the production of medium bodied wines with moderate alcohol levels. Examples include, Muscadet, Bordeaux, Rias Baixas, Vinho Verde, Southern England, and the eastern coast of New Zealand.

8

Define "Mediterranean Climate" and give examples.

Characterized by low annual range of temperatures but with dry summers and wet winters. The dry, sunny growing season is suitable for a wide range of wine styles -- but in particular, full bodied and richly textured reds with ripe tannins. Examples include those around the mediterranean, but also most of Chile, most of South Eastern Australia, parts of the United States' West Coast, and the Cape in South Africa.

9

Define "Continental Climate" and give examples.

Characterized by wide annual range of temperatures with hot summers and cold winters. Generally found inland away from the moderating effects of the sea. In regions far from the equator this results in warm but short summers. The combo of long day length and continentality makes viticulture viable in the northern regions of Germany, Champagne, and British Columbia. Requires the use of early-ripening varieties. Drier than Maritime = less risk of rot at harvest, so late harvesting is less of a risk. Examples include Alsace, Wachau, Burgundy, Mendoza, Central Spain.

10

Define "Tropical Climate" and give examples.

Minimal annual temperature variation so seasons tend to be defined not by temperature but by other factors (i.e. rainfall). Because the vine needs clear temperature signals for its dormant period and growth cycles, tropical and sub-trobical climates are considered unsuitable for high quality viticulture -- even in locations where temperature is moderated by altitude or proximity to cool oceans. Examples include Brazil and India but the lack of winters can mean a vine crops more than once a year and with no dormant period with which to rest -- Because of this, vines in these climates have a shorter lifespan.

11

Explain the role of Glucose to the vine.

Glucose is the building block of the vine: Sun, Water, and CO2 are photosynthesized to make it. Glucose molecules are combined to make larger carbohydrates, including cellulose which helps build the roots, trunk, shoots, leaves, and fruit. It is also the basic building block for the creation of tannin, acids, and flavor molecules within the grape.

12

At what temperature does vine growth peak?

Typically between 22 - 25˚C. Above this, the vines metabolic needs increase faster than its ability to photosynthesize sugars so growth slows.

13

Explain the role of Glucose to the vine.

Glucose is the building block of the vine: Sun, Water, and CO2 are photosynthesized to make it. Glucose molecules are combined to make larger carbohydrates, including cellulose which helps build the roots, trunk, shoots, leaves, and fruit. It is also the basic building block for the creation of tannin, acids, and flavor molecules within the grape.

14

At what temperature does vine growth peak?

Typically between 22 - 25˚C. Above this, the vines metabolic needs increase faster than its ability to photosynthesize sugars so growth slows.

15

Why are western facing vineyards disadvantageous?

Vineyards facing west, towards the setting sun, face a triple disadvantage: They do not catch the sun as it rises in the morning as east facing vineyards do, their sunlight will be scattered by dust that has been lifted by warming air during the day; and they tend to face damper cooler prevailing weather conditions.

16

What are some advantages to a sloped vineyard?

--- Sunlight reduces in intensity as he angle at which it hits the ground reduces from 90˚ to 0˚ -- Partly due to the light beams having to travel through a greater thickness of atmosphere to get to the ground (and thus more energy being absorbed), but mostly due to the fact that the available sunlight is dispersed over a greater area of land. --- Soils on slopes tend to be poorer, coarsely textured, and better drained, moderating vine vigor. --- If the vineyard is on a slope, the cold and relatively dense air moves downhill. The sinking cold air displaces warmer, less dense air to higher levels producing warm thermal layers on the slope. Above the warm layers air temperature again drops, which is why, for example, the best vineyards of the Cote d'Or run along the middle band of the slope. This air movement on slopes is especially valued in cooler climates as the air movement deters frost and offers slightly improved ripening potential.

17

What are some disadvantages to a sloped vineyard?

--- Increased risk of Erosion, although other factors such as rain intensity as well as soil texture and structure play a major part. --- Higher costs incurred to harvest than flat ones. Must be worked by hand.

18

What are the advantages of "Isolated Hills" and give examples?

Examples: The hill of Corton, Somló, and Montagne de Reims. These are ideal vineyard sites because there are no big currents of colder air flowing down from the main hills.

19

What are some advantages and disadvantages to vineyards near bodies of water?

Advantages: -- Reflects sun's rays -- Provides water for irrigation -- Reduces risk of ground frost -- Can provide morning mists to encourage the development of 'Noble Rot,' which may be desirable. Disadvantages: -- Increases humidity of a sight, which increases the risk of fungal disease, in particular downy mildew.

20

What are some advantages and disadvantages to vineyards near bodies of forests?

Advantages: -- Act as windbreaks -- Store heat in cold weather -- Increase humidity Disadvantages: -- Harbor large flocks of birds which feed on and damage grapes.

21

Name some effects of a thick vigourous canopy.

-- Reduces flower initiation and berry set due to shading. -- Results in higher levels of acid retention due to cooling. -- Reduces sugar accumulation due to an increase in humidity and shade from the vigourous canopy. -- Encourages competition between vigorously growing shoot tips and berries for sugar, which reduces berries' ability to fully ripen.

22

How does temperature affect 1) the yield of a vineyard 2) The quality of a winegrape crop?

1) -- Vigor of the vines -- # and size of flower cluster -- success of the setting of these into berries. 2) -- level of yield obtained -- accumulation of sugars and the reduction of acidity in the berry. -- the development of wine aromas and their precursors.

23

At what temperature will vines be affected by freeze injury?

Begins at -15˚C, is serious at -20˚C, and can be fatal at -25˚C -- Unless the vine is insulated by snow or earth pushed up around it. A site will usually be considered unsuitable for viticulture if its temperature falls below -20˚C more than once every 20 years or if the mean temperature for the coldest month is less than -1˚C.

24

How is the Amerine and Winkler heat summation (1944) calculated?

Mean temperature of the month - 10˚C (Min temp for vine growth) x number of days in the month --> Monthly sums are totaled for the 7 months of the growing season. Category 1 (2200) -- Bulk wines, table and drying grapes.

25

Above what temperature does vine growth slow?

30˚C

26

What are some effects of sunlight on vine growth?

-- Direct effect on the rate of photosynthesis -- Direct effect on bud viability, initiation of vine flowers, berry ripening, and cane maturation. -- Indirect effect due to heat accumulation.

27

How many hours of sunshine is required for Vitis vinifera to ripen ripe fruit?

1250. Additionally, the amount of available sunshine will decrease by up to 10% if the vineyard is located near a large town or city, due to pollution effects.

28

How does altitude influence temperature?

The mean annual temperature decreases by .6˚C with every 100 meter rise above sea level.

29

What factors influence soil fertility?

-- Soil texture -- Soil structure -- Organic matter content -- Mineral content -- Availability of air and water -- Level of acidity/alkalinity

30

What is soil texture?

The size of the particles that make up soil, and their proportions relative to one another. They are graded according to their diameter in mm: 0 < Clay < 0.002 < Silt < 0.02 < Fine Sand < .2 < Sand < 2 < Gravel < 2+ Most soils contain a mixture or particle sizes. Soil texture can be assessed by touch.