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Flashcards in the Illiad Deck (32):


Achaeans, The son of the military man Peleus and the sea-nymph Thetis. The most powerful warrior in The Iliad, Achilles commands the Myrmidons, soldiers from his homeland of Phthia in Greece. Proud and headstrong, he takes offense easily and reacts with blistering indignation when he perceives that his honor has been slighted. Achilles’ wrath at Agamemnon for taking his war prize, the maiden Briseis, forms the main subject of The Iliad.


Agamemnon (also called “Atrides”)

Achaeans. Mortal. King of Mycenae and leader of the Achaean army; brother of King Menelaus of Sparta. Arrogant and often selfish, Agamemnon provides the Achaeans with strong but sometimes reckless and self-serving leadership. Like Achilles, he lacks consideration and forethought. Most saliently, his tactless appropriation of Achilles’ war prize, the maiden Briseis, creates a crisis for the Achaeans, when Achilles, insulted, withdraws from the war.



Achaeans. Mortal. Achilles’ beloved friend, companion, and advisor, Patroclus grew up alongside the great warrior in Phthia, under the guardianship of Peleus. Devoted to both Achilles and the Achaean cause, Patroclus stands by the enraged Achilles but also dons Achilles’ terrifying armor in an attempt to hold the Trojans back.



Achaeans. Mortal. King of Sparta; the younger brother of Agamemnon. While it is the abduction of his wife, Helen, by the Trojan prince Paris that sparks the Trojan War, Menelaus proves quieter, less imposing, and less arrogant than Agamemnon. Though he has a stout heart, Menelaus is not among the mightiest Achaean warriors.



Achaeans. Mortal. King of Pylos and the oldest Achaean commander. Although age has taken much of Nestor’s physical strength, it has left him with great wisdom. He often acts as an advisor to the military commanders, especially Agamemnon. Nestor and Odysseus are the Achaeans’ most deft and persuasive orators, although Nestor’s speeches are sometimes long-winded.


Great Ajax, Ajax

Achaeans. Mortal. An Achaean commander, Great Ajax (sometimes called “Telamonian Ajax” or simply “Ajax”) is the second mightiest Achaean warrior after Achilles. His extraordinary size and strength help him to wound Hector twice by hitting him with boulders. He often fights alongside Little Ajax, and the pair is frequently referred to as the “Aeantes.”



Achaeans. Mortal. Thersites, the only common soldier mentioned by Homer in the Iliad, must have been an extraordinary man, for he had the guts to tell his comrades, their king Agamemnon and his officers, that they had been sent on a fool's errand, chasing after a silly twit named Helen who ran off with young Paris.


Diomedes (also called “Tydides”)

Achaeans. Mortal. The youngest of the Achaean commanders, Diomedes is bold and sometimes proves impetuous. After Achilles withdraws from combat, Athena inspires Diomedes with such courage that he actually wounds two gods, Aphrodite and Ares.



Trojan, Mortal. A son of King Priam and Queen Hecuba, Hector is the mightiest warrior in the Trojan army. He mirrors Achilles in some of his flaws, but his bloodlust is not so great as that of Achilles. He is devoted to his wife, Andromache, and son, Astyanax, but resents his brother Paris for bringing war upon their family and city.



Trojan, Mortal. King of Troy and husband of Hecuba, Priam is the father of fifty Trojan warriors, including Hector and Paris. Though too old to fight, he has earned the respect of both the Trojans and the Achaeans by virtue of his level-headed, wise, and benevolent rule. He treats Helen kindly, though he laments the war that her beauty has sparked.


Paris (also known as “Alexander”)

Trojan, Mortal. A son of Priam and Hecuba and brother of Hector. Paris’s abduction of the beautiful Helen, wife of Menelaus, sparked the Trojan War. Paris is self-centered and often unmanly. He fights effectively with a bow and arrow (never with the more manly sword or spear) but often lacks the spirit for battle and prefers to sit in his room making love to Helen while others fight for him, thus earning both Hector’s and Helen’s scorn.



Trojan, Mortal. Hector’s loving wife, Andromache begs Hector to withdraw from the war and save himself before the Achaeans kill him.



Trojan, Mortal. Queen of Troy, wife of Priam, and mother of Hector and Paris



Trojan, Mortal. A Trojan archer. Pandarus’s shot at Menelaus in Book 4 breaks the temporary truce between the two sides.



Trojan, Mortal. A powerful Trojan warrior, Glaucus nearly fights a duel with Diomedes. The men’s exchange of armor after they realize that their families are friends illustrates the value that ancients placed on kinship and camaraderie.



Trojan, Mortal. A Trojan nobleman, the son of Aphrodite, and a mighty warrior. The Romans believed that Aeneas later founded their city (he is the protagonist of Virgil’s masterpiece the Aeneid).



God, sided with the Trojans. King of the gods and husband of Hera, Zeus claims neutrality in the mortals’ conflict and often tries to keep the other gods from participating in it. However, he throws his weight behind the Trojan side for much of the battle after the sulking Achilles has his mother, Thetis, ask the god to do so.



God, sided with the Trojans. Goddess of love and daughter of Zeus, Aphrodite is married to Hephaestus but maintains a romantic relationship with Ares. She supports Paris and the Trojans throughout the war, though she proves somewhat ineffectual in battle.



God, sided with the Trojans. A son of Zeus and twin brother of the goddess Artemis, Apollo is god of the sun and the arts, particularly music. He supports the Trojans and often intervenes in the war on their behalf.



God, sided with the Trojans. God of war and lover of Aphrodite, Ares generally supports the Trojans in the war.



God, sided with the Trojans. Goddess of the hunt, daughter of Zeus, and twin sister of Apollo. Artemis supports the Trojans in the war.



God, sided with the Achaeans. The goddess of wisdom, purposeful battle, and the womanly arts; Zeus’s daughter. Like Hera, Athena passionately hates the Trojans and often gives the Achaeans valuable aid.



God, sided with the Achaeans. Queen of the gods and Zeus’s wife, Hera is a conniving, headstrong woman. She often goes behind Zeus’s back in matters on which they disagree, working with Athena to crush the Trojans, whom she passionately hates.



God, sided with the Achaeans. The brother of Zeus and god of the sea. Poseidon holds a long-standing grudge against the Trojans because they never paid him for helping them to build their city. He therefore supports the Achaeans in the war.



God, sided with the Achaeans. The messenger of the gods. Hermes escorts Priam to Achilles’ tent in Book 24.



God, sided with the Achaeans. God of fire and husband of Aphrodite, Hephaestus is the gods’ metalsmith and is known as the lame or crippled god. Although the text doesn’t make clear his sympathies in the mortals’ struggle, he helps the Achaeans by forging a new set of armor for Achilles and by rescuing Achilles during his fight with a river god.



God, sided with the Achaeans. A sea-nymph and the devoted mother of Achilles, Thetis gets Zeus to help the Trojans and punish the Achaeans at the request of her angry son. When Achilles finally rejoins the battle, she commissions Hephaestus to design him a new suit of armor.


In the Illiad how did the heroic code begin?

The need to be remembered


What is known as the "catalog of ships"

it the Illiad when Homer takes you to the gods point of view, comparison of troops with birds and flies, dictates geography of western world


how is the plot of the Illiad set in motion

Chryses, Apollo's priest, had his daughter stolen from him be Agomenon. Apollo sets down a plague on the greek army. Agomenon give her back then takes Achellies war prize as his own.


why and what book did Achilies transfer his Manas to Hektor from Agamemnon

Book 19, Hektor kills Patroclus in battle


Who tries to convince Achillies to return to the fight but fails

Phoenix, Ajax, Odysious