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Flashcards in The Industrial Revolution Deck (69):
1

Enclosure movement

The process of taking over and consolidating land formerly shared by peasant farmers

2

Smelt

Separating iron from its ore

3

Capital

Money used to invest in enterprises

4

Enterprise

A business organization in an area such as shipping, mining, railroads, or factories

5

Turnpike

Private roads built by entrepreneurs who charged travelers a toll to use them

6

Putting out system

Cottage industry

7

Urbanization and what caused it

The movement of people to cities. Changes in farming, soaring population, and increasing demand for workers

8

Tenement

Multistory buildings divided into apartments

9

Labor union and their goals

Workers organizations. Wanted workers rights

10

Luddite movement

Smashed textile machines with sledgehammers and burned factories

11

Methodism

Rekindling hope among the poor and forgiveness and a better life to come

12

Utilitarianism

Goal of society should be "greatest happiness for the greatest number"

13

Socialism

System in which people as a whole rather than private individuals own and operate the means of production

14

Communism

System in which governments led by a small elite controlled all economic and political life

15

Proletariat

Working class

16

Social democracy

A political ideology in which there is a gradual transition from capitalism to socialism

17

Dynamo

A machine that generates electricity

18

Bessemer process

A new process of making steel from iron

19

Anesthetic

A drug that prevents pain during surgery

20

Impressionism

School of painting that tried to capture fleeting visual impressions

21

Jethro Tull

Invented the seed drill

22

Thomas Newcomen

Invented the steam engine

23

Eli Whitney

Invented the cotton gin

24

James Hargreaves

Invented the spinning jenny

25

Richard Arkwright

Invented the water frame

26

John Kay

Invented the flying shuttle

27

James Watt

Improved Newcomen's steam engine

28

John Wesley

Founded the methodist movement

29

Adam Smith

Capitalism

30

Thomas Malthus

Population would increase faster than the food supply

31

David Ricardo

Laissez-faire economist

32

Jeremy Bentham

Advocated utilitarianism

33

John Stewart Mill

Individual freedom with government involvement

34

Robert Owen

Set up a socialist community

35

Karl Marx

Scientific socialism, haves and have nots

36

Friedrich Engels

Teamed up with Marx

37

William Cockerill

Opened factories in Belgium manufacturing spinning and weaving machines

38

Robert Fulton

Invented the steamboat

39

Henry Bessemer

Bessemer process

40

Alfred Nobel

Invented dynamite

41

Alessandro Volta

Developed the first battery

42

Michael Faraday

Invented the dynamo

43

Thomas Edison

Invented the lightbulb, phonograph, and motion picture camera

44

Nikolaus Otto

Invented the internal combustion machine

45

Karl Benz

First automobile with three wheels

46

Gottlieb Daimler

First four wheel automobile

47

Henry Ford

Utilized the assembly line

48

Wilber and Orville Wright

Made an airplane

49

Samuel Morse

Invented the telegraph

50

Alexander Graham Bell

Invented the telephone

51

Guglielmo Marconi

Invented the radio

52

John D. Rockefeller

Standard Oil Company

53

Louis Pasteur

Showed the link between microbes and disease

54

Robert Koch

Identified bacterium that cause tuberculosis

55

Florence Nightingale

World's first school of nursing

56

Joseph Lister

How antiseptics prevent infection

57

John Dalton

Modern atomic theory

58

Dmitri Mendeleyev

Periodic table of elements

59

Charles Lyell

Offered evidence that earth formed over millions of years

60

Charles Darwin

Evolution, survival of the fittest, natural selection

61

Lord Bryon

Larger than life figure

62

Victor Hugo

Three Musketeers and Hunchback of Notre Dame

63

Beethoven

Nine symphonies, many minor works

64

Charles Dickens

Oliver Twist, portrayed lives of the working class

65

Claude Monet

Painted one scene and then the same one at a different time of year

66

Edgar Degas

Brushed strokes of color side by side without blending

67

Georges Seurat

Pointilism

68

Vincent van Gogh

Dreamlike quality

69

Industrial Revolution

Period of change (second agricultural revolution)