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Flashcards in The Kidneys And Homeostasis Deck (35):
0

What is homeostasis?

The maintenance of a constant internal environment

1

What are the 6 main things that need controlled?

Body temperature, water content, ion content, blood sugar level, carbon dioxide and urea

2

Why does body temperature have to be controlled?

So that enzymes can work best as possible

3

What temperature do enzymes work best at?

37 degrees

4

What happens when your body is too hot?

Hairs lie flat, sweat is produced and blood vessels supplying the skin dilate

5

What happens when your body is too cold?

Hair stands up, blood vessels supplying skin construct and you shiver which releases energy

6

What are the three main roles of the kidneys?

Removal of urea from the blood, adjustment of ions in the blood and adjustment of water content of the blood

7

Why does urea need removed?

Urea is a waste product of amino acids made in the liver, it is poisonous and released into the bloodstream by the liver but filtered out by the kidneys and temporary stored in the Irvine until it's excerpted from the body

8

Why does the ion content need to be adjusted?

Having the wrong amount of water or ions can damage the cells or not allow them to work properly because it ruins the balance, excess ions are removed by the kidneys, some are lost in sweat but the balance is always managed by the kidneys

9

Where is water lost from in the body?

Urine, sweat and in the air we breathe out

10

Where is the water loss controlled?

Liquid consumption, amount we sweat and the amount extorted by the kidneys in the urine

11

What do sports drinks do?

Replace lost water, sugar and ions

12

What are the filtration units in the kidneys called?

Nephrons

13

From the blood, where does water, urea, ions and sugar go?

Into the Bowman's Capsule

14

When a high pressure builds up to squeeze substances out, what is it called?

Ultrafiltration

15

What do the membranes between the blood vessels and the bowman's capsule do?

Act as filters so that big molecules can't pass through

16

What surrounds the nephron?

A capillary network supplying blood

17

What happens in the nephron?

Reabsorption

18

What is reabsorbed?

All of the sugars, sufficient ions and sufficient water

19

What is excreted as urine?

Urea and remaining waste

21

Where are nephrons located?

In the urine

22

What are the two solutions to kidney failure?

Dialysis and transplant

23

What do the kidneys do?

Remove waste substances from the blood

24

What happens if the kidneys stop working?

Waste substances build up and you can't control the ion and water levels in your body which will eventually result in death

25

What does a dialysis machine do?

Filters the blood and removes water substances out

26

Why are useful ions and glucose not lost from the blood during dialysis?

The dialysis fluid has the same concentration of ions and glucose as healthy blood

27

What are the disadvantages of dialysis?

It can cause blood clots or infections and has to be done multiple times a week for 3-4 hours

28

What is done to prevent kidney transplants being rejected?

The patient is giving immune suppressants and a donor with a tissue type that closely matches is chosen

29

What controls blood glucose levels?

Insulin and glucagon

30

What monitors the changes in blood glucose?

The pancreas using the hormones insulin and glucagon

31

What happens if the glucose level is too high?

Insulin is added and the liver removes the glucose

32

What happens if the glucose level is too low?

Glucagon is added and the liver adds glucose

33

What is type 1 diabetes caused by?

Lack of insulin produced by the pancreas

34

How is type 1 diabetes controlled?

Limiting intake of sugar, regular exercise to lower blood glucose level and insulin therapy

35

Where is the insulin from insulin therapy extracted from?

the pancreases of pigs, cows or sometimes humans by genetic engineering