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Flashcards in The Liberal Reforms Deck (33):

How many private charities were there by 1905?



How many children did Dr Barnado rescue and how many lives did he improve?

59,384 and 500,000


What percentage of old people received relief?



Life expectancy for man and women?

47 for man 50 for women


How many people could there be up to in one room?



How long were some of the sweated industry shifts?

24 hour shifts


What was happening by 1901?

-improved working conditions
-all children had to go to school
-Slum clearance schemes were underway


What did the booths do?

-they went to the poor
-1878 there were 45 branches called salvation army
-1900/had its own training centre to help people find work e.g brickwork


What did Charles Booth do and what did he discover?

-Decided to find out how much of Britain was living in poverty.
-Investigated over 400 families
-found out that 31% of Londoners were living in poverty
-85% of poverty was due to unemployment and low wages


How much of York was in poverty?



Who was John Galt and what did he show?

Photographer and showed that majority worked hard but died due to low pay


What were the causes of the Liberal Reforms?(industrial decline)

-1900 USA and Germany took over UK in industrial production
-UK no longer richest nation
-Germany did this with their welfare scheme which created healthy and well educated work force
Lloyd thought if workers were healthier GB would rule again


What were the causes of the Liberal Reforms?(Boer War)

-War showed that 50% of recruits were unfit due to not being fed properly
-This showed GB's position for being one of the strongest nations was threatened and the was European war looming round the corner
-Changes for poor had to happen so they could protect themselves


What were the causes of the Liberal Reforms?(Rise of Labour Party)

-Labour were calling for pensions, education and unemployment schemes
-If Liberals did not offer the same thing then they feared they would lose votes


When was free school meals set up and what did it introduce?

-158000 children fed at least once a day


When was School medication inspections introduced and what did it do?

-Doctors and Nurses gave compulsory medical checks


When was the pension act introduced and what did it do?

-1908 promised made
-jan 1st 1909 first paid
-Over 70's entitled to 5s per week
-married couples received 7s6d


When was the national insurance act introduced and what did it do?

-all workers with wage less than $160 had to join
-workers paid 4d
-if workers were sick the could claim 10s per week for 13 weeks
-10 million men and 4 million women covered


when was Trade Boards act set up and what did it do?

created minimum wage for sweated industry.
-only 400,000 helped by this act


When was National Insurance part 2 introduced and what did it do?

Aimed to stop poverty caused by unemployment.
-Workers, employers and government all paid 2d per week for a stamp.
-if you collected enough stamps you could claim unemployment pay of 7s 6d a week


The success of the Liberal Reforms?(Free School Meals)

-By 1914 over 14 million free school meals were given out
-158000 children were given free meals


The success of the Liberal Reforms?(National Insurance part 1)

-poor people could survive ill health without starving


The success of the Liberal Reforms?(Pension Act)?

-650000 people claimed pensions in the first year


The success of the Liberal Reforms?(National Insurance part 2)

-Helped unemployed back to work
-Protected unemployed


The failure of Liberal Reforms?(Free School Meals)

-only half of the authorities set up free school meals


The failure of Liberal Reforms?(The Pensions Act)

-Massive tax burden on the rich
-Not many people lived to 70


The failure of Liberal Reforms?(National Insurance part 1)

-Only helped poorest, low paid workers were not helped
-Did not cover dependents
-Widows did not receive pensions if man died


The failure of Liberal Reforms?(National Insurance part 2)

-Only covered 2.25 million people/ mainly skilled workers
-The insurance wasnt enough for a working man and his family


What was the Peoples Budget?

-Pay for pensions meant that an addition $16 million a year in governments revenue was needed.
-Richer people had to pay higher tax (6d super tax)
-Conservatives(who were represented the rich) had a majority of the seats in the House of Lords and said they would not pass the law
- Lloyd George travelled the world making speeches in working class areas portrayed men were using their position to stop the old receiving their pensions.
-Lloyd George finally put his budget through to parliament
-Lords were no longer allowed to prevent the passage of money bills.


Who supported Labour and what were their beliefs?

-Equal society where richer taxed to support the poor
-Though Liberal Reforms needed to do more e.g lower ages for pensions


Who supported the Liberals and what were their beliefs?

-People from all classes
-provide framework to help poor but without upsetting rich


Who supported the conservatives and what did they believe?

-Punch magazine/Times/Rich and landowners
-not to interfere with the economy let people look after themselves
-protect money for the rich
-Thought reforms were taxing too much


Why did some people oppose reforms?

-some doctors/ did not like free medical care as they thought they would lose money from private health care
-Conservatives/ believed the UK would turn into a nanny state/ many believed in Lazzies Faire
-Workers hated that they had to provide for National Insurance as this money was essential to them to by bread
-Labour/ Criticised reforms for not doing enough but believed it was a step in the right directions. Though ages for pensions should be set lower