When did Italy become fully united?
What kind of government followed after the unification of Itlay
A Parliamentary government similar to that of Britain, however, the constitution from Piedmont remained the same which included policies such as equality before the law, right of free assembly, and a free press
How was Italy’s political development hampered.
The Roman Question. After Italy captured Rome, the pope (Pipus IX) was angry that he’d lost papal territory and refused to recognise the legitimacy of unified Italy. In 1886 the new Pope Leo XIII banned Catholics for running for office or voting for elections in which the people of Italy questioned the legitimacy of the new nation. No Parliamentary challenge and less than 25% of men could vote in Italy.
Italy also set up a constitutional monarchy, what is that?
There is still a king who is head of the state and has the ability to dismiss prime ministers. The monarchy also controlled foreign policy. However, the Prime Minister is the head of the government and is responsible for the day to day politics of the country.
What did the Italian Parliament consist of?
It had 2 chambers: The upper and lower chamber. The upper was called the senate and the lower was called the chamber of deputies. The lower chamber had more political power and was elected every 5 years.
Weaknesses of the Political system.
There were no stable and coherent political parties. Politicians would offer positions of status to other members of parliament who would then in return agree to support them as PM. This meant that governments didn’t last long as deputies could withdraw their support due to a better offer from another party. This was known as transformismo
Consequences of the weak political system?
Many government changes, inability to pass legalization, and the alienation and disenfranchisement of the population.
When did Italy experience considerable economic expansion and where was it focused mainly?
The north of Italy 1899 - 1914
Which industries grew significantly between 1899 and 1914.
Electric cable companies, Rubber companies, Sulphuric acid companies. 4.5% increase in export per year and bigger profits.
How many workers joined the workforce in 1901-1911
What did different parts of the north focus on industry-wise?
North West: Engineering and Textiles
North: Steel and Chemicals
North East: Heavy Machinery
Which three provinces held 55% of the income
Milan, Genoa and Turin
Did living conditions of urban and rural workers change due to industrial expansion
How manhy strikes where there between 1901-11
1500+ Including around 350 000 workers
What did the industrial expansion highlight?
The divide between the north and south.
How long after unification did a PM visit the south.
What did the peasant population of the south have to deal with?
Poor diet, malnutrition, lack of clean drinking water, and lots of diseases.
1910-11: 25 000 died to cholera
80% south illiterate
How many Italians emmigrated from 1901-13
200 000 per year.
Giolitti and the socialists
The PSI was the main focus of the 1911 Giovitti program. One of the few formal parties with 79 seats in the 1913 elections. Growth in socialism mirrored the industrial growth with much internal migration to the south. Industries had a greater mix of Italians from all over the country. This disseminated political thought and awareness which led to growing socialist ideas to advance the working class. PSI was led by Filippo Turati, who was backed by intellectuals that had lost faith in liberalism. The thought only socialism could cure Italy of its problems. They did what the liberals didn’t, they gave their messages to the poor and held public meetings and debates. They also encouraged education so they could challenge political order. 1902 250 000 workers joined socialist federations and 218 000 farmers joined socialist agricultural unions. Giolitti wanted to deal with the socialists through transformismo, by ‘absorbing’ socialist deputies. He offered many social reforms including mandatory accident insurance, ban child work under 12, 11-hour women workday… . The most important one was the non-intervention of labour disputes with the involvement of arbitration courts. These reforms were partially successful in the absorption of the socialist party for example Turati however he couldn’t turn the maximalists, who wanted revolution by overthrow of the sate, to his side.
Giolitti and the Catholic Church?
The catholic church held a lot of power and influence and he was careful with his dealings with them, through 1904 - 11 the catholic church had gained a lot of political influence through youth movements and sports clubs. In 1904 he said the state and church were two parallel lines, which should never meet. Meaning that they should always be separated, however, Giolitti was willing to offer concessions in return for catholic support. He was successful being the first Italian PM to win the first organized catholic vote. This was achieved in a similar way to how he dealt with the socialists, through ‘absorption and the offering of concessions that would gain the church’s support. Some concessions included the quiet removal of the divorce bill and a focus on education. Due to the rise of socialism, the pope asked people to vote in 150 constituencies where socialists had a chance of winning in 1909. Although Goilitti liked the catholic support, he didn’t want them to be their biggest link. He wanted to prioritise getting support from the socialists. He didn’t want to give any concessions on territory so he still couldn’t solve the roman question
Giolitti and the nationalists?
before 1911 - 14, nationalism was barely a political force. However, during 1911-14 its popularity and influence increased a lot. Due to the battle of Adwa and being the least of the great powers, meant that there was considerable growth in nationalism. They believed that through an aggressive foreign policy that Italy would be seen again as a world power. They wanted to unite the people of Italy based on their individual and patriotic love for their country. They thought liberalism encouraged selfish individualism.
1910 the nationalists formed the ANI. Which brought all the types of nationalism into one party and under one leader. Enrico Corradini. The socialists and Catholics were prepared to work with the liberals but the nationalists weren’t. He tried to undermine them through economic modernisation. This failed as nationalism was just more attractive. The only way that Giolitti could deal with this was by embracing them and invading Libya as an attempt to expand the Italian empire
What were some problems with the Tripple alliance, (land)
Italy was part of the triple alliance with Austria and Germany and Italy has a land interest in the Balkans. However, the Balkans were owned by Austria-Hungary. Many Italians believed the land was theirs.
What did the nationalists want in terms of Austria-Hungary?
They wanted Giolitti to make more of an aggressive stance towards Austria-Hungary.
What did Giolitti do in terms of expansion to placate the nationalists?
He intended to expand to Libya, which was under Ottoman rule. 1902, Italy signed a deal with France, that Italy would support the French expansion in Morocco in return for french backing Italian influence in Libya. After France controlled Morocco he was worried that France will break the deal and expand to Libya. An invasion of Libya would also gain catholic support as they had a financial interest there as well as socialist support, which they thought would provide more land for peasantry.
How successful was the invasion of Libya in September 1911?
He was, in the short term, successful. There was a national celebration from everyone including the socialists, Bissolati.
How did the Italians invade Libya?
70 000 troops took Libya’s ports and coastal towns in under 3 weeks however the Libyans were not happy and were still in favour of their ottoman rule. Italian forces occupied 13 Turkish held islands in the Aegean sea. Due to Turkey being at war with several other countries at the time, it couldn’t handle more, so on 8th Oct 1912, they gave Libya to the Italians. This victory overcame the shame of Adwa and Giolitti gained lots of support.
What were the successes of Giolittis programme by 1912?
Gained support from PSI deputies in parliament. The catholic church was cooperating with the liberals in key areas. The Libyan victory galvanised nationalist support.
What were the consequences of the invasion of Libya?
This didn’t help him ‘absorb’ nationalists. Instead, it boosted the ANI’s support. As nationalists took credit for the war saying that Giolitti only invaded due to nationalist pressure. They also blamed the Liberal’s lack of patriotism as a reason for the number of Italian deaths.
The war Destroyed the cooperation between Giolitti and the PSI as they opposed the war and banished members who worked with the liberals such as Bissolati. The radical wing of the party gained control and cut off all support to Giolitti. As the radicals were in control, Benito Mussolini was appointed editor of the socialist newspaper.
What was the impact of increased suffrage in 1912?
Before the vote was only available to literate men over 21, now due to the people fighting in Libya, the franchise was extended to all men over 30 or any aged man who had done military service. He hoped that this increase suffrage would promote national unity, increase liberal support and undermine the PSI. However when the votes came in 1913, the liberals had lost 71 seats from the 1909 elections. They had 317 in the 1913 elections. Another problem was that the catholic church asked liberals to agree to 7 points in return for the catholic vote. The catholic church then claimed that they were responsible for 228 of the 317 seats. 1914 Giolitti resigned due to lack of support.
Who was giolitti replaced by?
Antonio Salandra believed that liberalism could be revived by linking it to nationalism. However, in June 1914, three protestors were shot dead in ancona and the PSI proclaimed a national strike in which the radicals, anarchists, and republicans joined in as well.
What happened in the red week.
Northcentral Italy was in chaos. -Public buildings torched -Tax registers Destroyed -Railways Siezed -Many workers lives lost to the police. -Churches attacked Italy was on the edge of a revolution but the unions called off the strikes which proved to Salandra that national unity will be hard af.
What did Salandra do when war broke out?
Italy declared neutrality as Austria-Hungary didn’t consult Italy before declaring war on Serbia. People like Giolitti thought that Italy wasnt economically ready for another war.. Many politicians backed giolitti.
What the declaration of neutrality of 1914 cause
An intervension crisis:
Salandra was pro war and feared that if Germany and Austria won, they wouldn’t be sympathetic towards a country that could have helped. On the contrary, if Italy had not assisted Britain and France then possibilities of gaining Irridentae lands in the Mediterranean would be impossible.
What was the treaty of london and what problems did it cause?
Start of 1915 salandra and the foreign minister sonnino made secret deals with both the tripple alliance and entente. However the entente offered the best deal, offering irridentae lands if they help Britian and France in the war effort, (south Tyrol, Trentino, Istria…). 26 April 1915 they signed the treaty of london. This news caused disruption among Italy, not even army generals knew of the dealings. The PSI were against war as well as most catholics. Most Italins couldnt care less about irridentae land but they did fear the war. Many neutralists backed gioliti but parliament was too divided for anything to happen.
What did mussolini believe?
He believed the war was key in Italian revolution and got kicked out of the PSI and Avanti
What did unrest force salandra to do?
He was forced to resign and the king asked Giolitti to be PM. However Giolitti was worried that he couldnt turn back on the treaty and as well as that, the king told Giolitti that he felt honored to the treaty and would abdicate if it were not honored. Giolitti didnt feel responsible and didnt want to overthrow the king so he declined the position for PM.
What did salandra do after being reinstated again?
He used emergency powers and formally declared war on Austria on the 25th of May 1915.
What did Mussolini base his campaigns on after the war?
How nationalists forced the government into war
When did the Habsburg empire reinstate its king to take control of the Aegean Sea after Italy took control of 13 Islands?