Flashcards in The most important events Deck (98):
What is a journée?
A day of popular action and disturbance linked to great political change
What is the most famous journée?
The Storming of the Bastille
When was the Storming of the Bastille?
July 14 1789
Which group of people were demonstrating at the Bastille?
What were they demonstrating for at the Bastille?
Gunpowder and cartridges
Where was the first place they raided and what did they seize on July 14 1789?
•Les Invalides- an old soldiers retirement home
•28,000 muskets and 20 cannon were seized
Which governor denied the entry of the crowd on July 14 1789?
How many people were killed in the inner courtyard at the Bastille?
What happened to the governor after the attack on the Bastille?
He was murdered and decapitated
When were the October Days?
1-6 October 1789
Who were present during the October Days?
A crowd of women, National Guard, Lafayette
What happened on October 5 1789?
A crowd of women stormed the Hotel de Ville- the headquarters of the commune demanding bread
When was the Champs de Mars massacre?
July 17 1791
How many people flocked to the Champs de Mars?
What were they there to sign on the Champs de Mars?
A republican petition on the 'altar of the fatherland'
What did the National Guard do in response to the Champs de Mars gathering?
They sent Lafayette with the National Guard and they fired on the peaceful and unarmed crowd
How many people were killed at the Champs de Mars?
Who fled or went into hiding because of the Champs de Mars massacre?
Hébert, Marat, Danton
When did the Storming of the Tuileries Palace take place?
9-10 August 1792
Who was amongst the leaders of the Sans-Culottes in the attack on the Tuileries?
How many people marched on the Tuileries on August 10 1792?
•Several thousand men from the National Guard
Who defended the Tuileries when the attack happened?
3000 troops- 2000 National Guard, 1000 Swiss mercenaries
How many Swiss were massacred at the Tuileries?
How many attackers had been wounded or killed at the Tuileries?
90 fédérés, 300 Parisians
What other main event happened on August 10 1792?
The overthrow of the monarchy
When were the September massacres?
2-7 September 1793
What did the September massacres signify the beginning of?
How many Paris prisoners were murdered in the September massacres?
Between 1100-1400 of the 2600 prisoners
As a result of the September massacres, what were the sans-culottes now known as?
Bloodthirsty savages- buveurs de sang (drinkers of blood)
When was the Battle of Valmy?
September 20 1792
What happened at the Battle of Valmy?
52,000 French troops defeated 34,000 Prussians
Why was the Battle of Valmy a significant victory for the French troops?
If the Prussians had won, it was likely that Paris would have fallen and the Revolution would have been brought to an end
When was the War of the First Coalition?
1 February 1793
Who declared war on who in 1793?
The Convention declared war on Britain and The Netherlands
Who was France at war with in 1793?
Most of Europe including:
When was the Rising in the Vendée?
11 March 1793
Why was there no peace in the Vendée?
Sale of Church land, religious changes, guerrilla warfare
When was the overthrow of the Girondins?
26 May- 2 June 1793
What happened as a result of the events on 2 June 1793?
29 Girondin deputies and 2 ministers arrested. Charlotte Corday assassinates Marat (believed would end revolution)
When was the Armée Révolutionnaire?
4 September 1793
What was the purpose of the Armée Révolutionnaire?
•Ensure food supplies were of Paris were large in provinces
•Establish revolutionary justice in areas in the south and west
What was the main task of the Armée Révolutionnaire?
Engage in dechristianisation- antireligious policies against the Church (destroy its influence)
What was enforced in September 1793?
What was the General Maximum?
Fix the prices of a wide range of food and commodities
What were people’s reactions to the General Maximum?
•Peasants- rate often below the cost of production
•Sans-Culottes- happy because they could afford bread
When was the Political Terror?
What were the 3 forms of the Political Terror?
•’Official Terror’- victims came before the Revolutionary Tribunal
•Areas of federal revolt such as the Vendée
•Other parts of France under the control of representatives-on-mission (CGS)
When was Marie Antoinette executed?
October 16 1793
When was the Law of Suspects passed?
What was the Law of Suspects?
Anyone suspected of counter-revolutionary activity and undermining the Republic could be arrested and held without trial indefinitely
How many people died during the Terror?
When was the new Revolutionary Calendar introduced?
5 October 1793
What years were included in Year I?
22 September 1792- 21 September 1793
When was the Great Terror?
10 June- 27 July 1794
What was the Law of Prairial?
Reform the Revolutionary Tribunal to secure more convictions. It was aimed against the ‘enemies of the people’
When does Robespierre first begin to lose support?
In which areas does Robespierre lose support?
Why did Robespierre lose support amongst Catholics?
Cult of the Supreme Being- a new religion to unite all Frenchmen
Why did Robespierre lose support from the Sans-Culottes?
•Execution of Hébertistes
•Dissolution of popular societies
•Raising of Maximum on prices
•Imposing of Maximum on wages
Why did Robespierre lose support from the CGS/CPS?
Felt threatened by Robespierre. Many were becoming suspicious of him particularly following the introduction of the Cult of the Supreme Being
What is the Coup of Thermidor?
The overthrow of Robespierre and his closest supporters which marked the end of the Terror
When was Robespierre arrested?
9 Thermidor (27 July 1794)
When was the uprising in Germinal?
1 April 1795
What happened at the Germinal uprising?
A large crowd of 10,000 unarmed march on the Convention and demanded for bread and the release of former CPS members
When was the Prairial uprising?
20 May 1795
What happened at the Prairial uprising?
Large crowd marched on the Convention to demand bread- a deputy was killed and marked the end of the Sans-Culottes
When was the White Terror?
What was the White Terror?
An attack on ex-terrorists
When was the new Constitution of Year III?
22 August 1795
What were the main features of the Constitution of Year III?
•All men over 21 were allowed to vote to choose electors
•Separate legislature from the executive
What were the weaknesses of the new constitution (Year III)?
Enforced the separation of powers- government could not make laws without the support of the legislature
When was the Verona Declaration?
24 June 1795
What was the Verona Declaration?
A reactionary statement promising to reverse the gains made during the revolution
Did the Verona Declaration succeed or fail?
Failed- gave a boost to those who favoured a Republic
When was the Vendémiaire uprising?
5 October 1795 (13 Vendémiaire)
How many people gathered to march on the Convention in 1795?
What was Napoleon’s signature artillery fire?
Whiff of Grapeshot- crushed the rebellion
He many people were killed in the Vendémiaire uprising?
How many people were a member of the Directory?
When was the Babeuf Plot?
What was the aim of the Babeuf Plot?
Overthrow the Directory- resulted in Babeuf’s arrest in May 1796
When was the Constitution of Year VIII declared?
15 December 1799
How long did the Directory last for?
4 years 1795-1799
What happened in December 1800?
Assassination attempt on Napoleon
What was created in 1800?
The Bank of France
When was the Napoleonic Empire created?
18 May 1804
When was the War of the Third Coalition?
When was the War of the Fourth Coalition?
What happened in 1806?
French domination in Germany by defeating Austria and abolishing the Holy Roman Empire
When was the Peninsular War?
Why was there a Peninsular War?
Secure the defeat of Britain
What were some consequences to the Peninsular War?
Large numbers or Spanish people rose against French rule
When was the invasion of Russia?
What is scorched earth?
Destroying all food and shelter of the French- Napoleon found it difficult to feel his men and horses
When was the Battle of Waterloo?
Who was leading the British army?
When was Napoleon exiled?