The Muscular System- Extrinsic Muscles Flashcards Preview

Intro to Veterinary Technician- Anatomy and Physiology 1 > The Muscular System- Extrinsic Muscles > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Muscular System- Extrinsic Muscles Deck (104)
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1
Q

List the Subcutaneus Muscle

A

Cutaneous truncii

2
Q

List the 8 Extrinsic Muscles of the Thoracic Limb

A
  1. Superficial pectoral
    A. Transverse
    B. Descending
  2. Deep pectoral
  3. Brachiocephalicus
    A. Cleidobrachialis
    B. Cleidomastoideus
    C. Cleidocervicalis
  4. Omotransversarius
  5. Trapezius
  6. Rhomboideus(Rh.)
    A. Capital/ Rh. capitis
    B. Cervical/ Rh. cervicis
    C. Thoracic/ Rh. thoracis
  7. Latissimus dorsi
  8. Serratus ventralis
    A. Cervical part
    B. Thoracic part
3
Q

List the 2 muscles of the head and neck

A
  1. Sternocephalicus
    A. Sternomastoideus
    B. Sterno-occipitalis
  2. Platysma
4
Q

List the 4 muscles of mastication (chewing)

A
  1. Temporalis
  2. Masseter
  3. Digastricus
  4. Mylohyoideus
5
Q

Attachment

A

The junction of a skeletal muscle to bone.

3 types:
A. Tendon
B. Aponeurosis
C. Fleshy

6
Q

Tendon

A

An extension of the epimysium that consists of dense connective cord-like tissue

7
Q

Aponeurosis

A

Dense fibrous connective tissue much like the tendon but organized into a thin sheet of tissue

8
Q

Fleshy

A

An apparent direct attachment of muscle to the bone. The muscle is in fact attached to the periosteum of the bone by very short tendons

9
Q

Origin

A

The attachment at the less movable end of the muscle or usually the more proximal end

10
Q

Insertion

A

The attachment at the more movable end of the muscle; in the limbs this is usually the most distal end

11
Q

Action

A

The body movement that a contraction of the muscle will produce

12
Q

Umbilicus

A

A small flat or slightly raised scar on the ventral midline of the abdomen approx. 1/3 the dist. From the xiphoid cartilage to the penis or vulva; serves as a landmark when abdominal surgery is performed

13
Q

Teats; Mammary Papillae; Mammae

A

They are positioned in 2 rows on either side of the abdomen and are usually divided into thoracic, abdominal & inguinal. Tomcat-2
Queen-8
Dogs-8 to12

14
Q

Costal Arch

A

Caudal ventral border of the rib cage formed by the costal cartilages of the 10th, 11th & 12th ribs; the 13th rib does not attach to the costal arch.

15
Q

Origin of Descending Superficial Pectoralis muscle

A

The smaller portion of the superficial pectoralis arises from the first 2 sternebrae and it’s fibers run in a craniolateral direction.

16
Q

Origin of Transverse Superficial pectoralis muscle

A

The larger transverse portion originates on the first 2 or 3 sternebrae; the fibers run more transversely

17
Q

Origin of Superficial Pectoralis muscle

A

Cranial sternum

18
Q

Insertion of Superficial pectoralis muscle

A

descending and transverse portions both insert on the greater tubercle of the humerus

19
Q

Action of Superficial pectoralis muscle

A

Adducts the thoracic limb

20
Q

Origin-Cranial sternum

Insertion- Greater tubercle of the humerus

Action- adducts the thoracic limb

A

Superficial Pectoralis muscle

21
Q

Origin of Omotransversarius muscle

A

Wing of the atlas

22
Q

Insertion of Omotransversarius muscle

A

Spine & Acromion of Scapula

23
Q

Action of Omotransversarius muscle

A

Advances the limb and/or pulls the head & neck to the side

24
Q

Transect the Omotransversarius muscle through its middle to observe what?
Hint-Found in the fascia medial to this muscle & cranial to the scapula.

A

The superficial cervical lymph node.

25
Q

What is the Origin of the Trapezius muscle

A

The dorsal aspect of the neck and thorax

26
Q

What is the insertion of the Trapezius muscle

A

Spine of the Scapula

27
Q

What is the action of the Trapezius muscle

A

Elevates and abducts the forelimb

28
Q

Origin- dorsal aspect of the neck & thorax

Insertion- Spine of the scapula

Action- Elevates and abducts forelimb

A

Trapezius Muscle

29
Q

What are the 2 portions of the Trapezius muscle called? Where are they located?

A

Cervical portion- lies Cranial to Scapular Spine

Thoracic Portion- lies Caudal to the Scapular spine

30
Q

Where is the Rhomboideus Muscle located and what does it hold?

A

Lies beneath the trapezius muscle.

Holds the dorsal border of the scapula close to the body

31
Q

What is the insertion of the Rhomboideus muscle?

A

dorsal border of the scapula and/or it’s cartilage

32
Q

What are the 3 parts of the Rhomboideus muscle?

A

Capital-rhomboideus capitis
Cervical-rhomboideus cervicis
Thoracic-rhomboideus thoracis

33
Q

Origin of the rhomboideus capitis?

A

nuchal crest of the occipital bone

34
Q

Origin of the rhomboideus cervicis?

A

median fibrous tissue on the dorsal aspect of the neck

35
Q

Origin of the rhomboideus thoracis?

A

spinous process of the first 7 thoracic vertebrae

36
Q

Action of the rhomboideus muscle?

A

elevates forelimb

37
Q

In horse and cattle the rhomboideus muscle only has 2 parts:

A

thoracic & cervical

38
Q

Origin of the Latissimus Dorsi muscle?

A

spinous process of the lumbar & the last 7 or 8 thoracic vertebrae

39
Q

Insertion of the Latissimus Dorsi muscle?

A

teres major tuberosity of the humerus & the teres major tendon

40
Q

Action of the Latissimus Dorsi muscle?

A

draws limb caudally;
flexes the shoulder joint

41
Q

Latissimus Dorsi muscle?

A

Large muscle that lies caudal to the scapula & covers much of the thoracic wall

42
Q

Serratus ventralis muscle?

A

this large muscle acts as a sling to support the body between the forelegs

43
Q

How many parts does the serratus ventralis muscle have and what are they called?

A

2 parts

Cervical part
Thoracic part

44
Q

Origin of the Cervical part of the Serratus Ventralis muscle?

A

cervical vertebrae

45
Q

Origin of the Thoracic part of the Serratus Ventralis muscle?

A

ribs

46
Q

Insertion of the Serratus Ventralis muscle?

A

the serrated face on the dorsomedial aspect of the scapula

47
Q

Action of the Serratus Ventralis muscle?

A

supports the trunk & depresses the scapula

48
Q

Where does the name Serratus come from?

A

The serrated appearance of the muscle on the ventral aspect of the thoracic portion

49
Q

Origin-
-Cervical part-cervical vertebrae
-Thoracic part- ribs

Insertion- serrated face on the dorsomedial aspect of the scapula

Action- supports the trunk & depresses the scapula

A

Serratus Ventralis Muscle

50
Q

Origin- 1: nuchal crest of the occipital bone
2: median fibrous tissue on the dorsal aspect of the neck

        3: spinous process of the first 7 thoracic vertebrae

Insertion-dorsal border of the scapula and/or it’s cartilage

Action- elevates forelimb

A

Rhomboideus muscle

1: Capital; rhomboideus capitis
2: Cervicle; rhomboideus cervical
3: Thoracic; rhomboideus thoracis

51
Q

Origin- spinous process of the lumbar & last 7 or 8 thoracic vertebrae

Insertion- teres major tuberosity of the humerus & the teres major tendon

Action- draws limb caudally; flexes the shoulder joint

A

Latissimus Dorsi Muscle

52
Q

Origin of the Deep Pectoral muscle?

A

Sternum

53
Q

Insertion of the Deep pectoral muscle?

A

Cats- Crest of the greater tubercle
Dog- primarily the lesser tubercle of the humerus w/ some attachment to the greater tubercle

54
Q

Action of the Deep Pectoral muscle?

A

Adducts the limb & pulls the limb caudally

55
Q

Origin- Sternum

Insertion-
Cats- Crest of the greater tubercle
Dog- primarily the lesser tubercle of the humerus w/ some attachment to the greater tubercle

Action- Adducts the limb & pulls the limb caudally

A

Deep Pectoral Muscle

56
Q

foreleg

A

brachium

57
Q

The brachiocephalicus forms the upper margin of the _____________ in animals.

A

Jugular groove

58
Q

This tendinous region , which is considered the origin of the Brachiocephalicus muscle, is a vestige of the clavicle found in humans.

A

Clavicular Intersection

59
Q

Origin of the Brachiocephalicus Muscle?

A

Clavicular Intersection

60
Q

The Brachiocephalicus MM. splits into how many parts?

What are they called?

A

3 parts:
-Cleidobrachialis &
Cleidocephalicus*
Which splits into:
-Cleidomastoideus
-Cleidocervicalis

  • horses only have 2 Cleidobrachialis & Cleidocephalicus
61
Q

Insertion of Cleidobrachialis part of the Brachiocephalicus MM.?

A

the cranial humerus
cats- ulna

62
Q

Insertion of Cleidomastoideus part of the Brachiocephalicus MM.?

A

the mastoid process of the temporal bone

63
Q

Insertion of Cleidocervicalis part of the Brachiocephalicus MM.?

A

dorsal neck

64
Q

For the Brachiocephalicus MM., the region from the clavicle to the foreleg is called?

A

Cleidobrachialis

65
Q

For the Brachiocephalicus MM., the region from the clavicle to the head is called?

A

Cleidocephalicus

66
Q

What does Cleidocephalicus split into?

A

Cleidomastoideus &
Cleidocervicalis

67
Q

Action of Brachiocephalicus MM?

A

pulls the limb forward,
extends the shoulder,
depresses & pulls the head and neck laterally

68
Q

What is the name of the MM. that is a compound Y-shaped MM. w/ 3 parts?

A

Brachiocephalicus MM.

69
Q

What is the jugular groove and what muscles make it?

A

It is a landmark groove, for the jugular vein, running the length of the ventral side of the neck.

Brachiocephalicus MM.(Upper margin) & Sternocephalicus MM. (lower margin)

70
Q

Origin of the Sternocephalicus MM.

A

Sternum

71
Q

Insertion of the Sernomastoideus part of the Sternocephalicus MM.?

A

Mastoid part of the Occipital bone

72
Q

Insertion of the Sterno-occipitalis part of the Sternocephalicus MM.?

A

nuchal crest of the occipital bone

73
Q

Insertion of the Sternocephalicus MM. in horses?

A

Occipital bone*

  • In horses this MM. does not split
74
Q

Action of the Sternocephalicus MM.?

A

depresses the head & neck
and/or
draws the head & neck to the side

75
Q

Origin of Platysma MM.?

A

dorsal tendinous raphe at the dorsal midline

76
Q

Insertion of the Platysma MM.?

A

fibers of this muscle attach to the muscles surrounding the lips

77
Q

Action of the Platysma MM.?

A

Draws the commissures of the lips caudally

78
Q

Origin- Sternum

Insertion-
1- mastoid part of the occipital bone
2- nuchal crest of the occipital bone
3- Occipital bone

Action- depresses the head & neck
and/or
- draws the head & neck to the side

*In horses this MM. does not split

A

Sternocephalicus MM.
1-Sternomastoideus part
2- Sterno-occipitalis part
3- Sternocephalicus MM.

79
Q

Origin- dorsal tendinous raphe at the dorsal midline

Insertion- fibers of this muscle attach to the muscles surrounding the lips

Action- draws the commissures of the lips caudally

A

Platysma MM.

80
Q

Platysma MM.

A

-well-developed sheetlike muscle
-one of the major cutaneus muscles of the neck & head
-usually tightly adherent to the skin

81
Q

Temporalis MM.

A

-largest MM. on head
-found on the lateral & dorsal aspects of the skull
-prominent between ears & extends down into the temporal fossa of the skull

82
Q

Origin of Temporalis MM.?

A

Parietal bone of the skull

83
Q

Insertion of temporalis MM.?

A

Coronoid process of mandible

84
Q

Action of the Temporalis MM.?

A

closes the mouth when chewing
-elevates mandible
-moves mandible laterally

85
Q

Origin- Parietal bone of the skull

Insertion- Coronoid process of mandible

Action- closes mouth when chewing

A

Temporalis MM.

86
Q

Origin of Masseter MM.?

A

zygomatic arch

87
Q

Insertion of Masseter MM.?

A

lateral side of the mandible

88
Q

Action of Masseter MM.?

A

elevates the mandible to close the mouth when chewing

89
Q

Masseter MM.?

A

-lg. MM. found ventral to the zygomatic arch
-makes up cheek region of cat
-lies on the lateral surface of the ramus of the mandible
-covered in aponeurosis
-consists of 3 layers whose fibers run in 3 diff. directions

90
Q

Digastricus MM.?

A
  • thin superficial straplike MM.
  • found along the ventral caudal edge of the mandible
91
Q

Origin of Digastricus MM.?

A

occipital and temporal bones

92
Q

Insertion of Digastricus MM.?

A

ventral mandible

93
Q

Action of Digastricus MM.?

A

opens mouth

94
Q

Mylohyoideus MM.?

A

-forms a sling for the tongue
-thin muscular sheet
-fibers run in a transverse direction

95
Q

Origin of Mylohyoideus MM.?

A

medial surface of the mandible

96
Q

Insertion of Mylohyoideus MM.?

A

ventral median raphe between the bones of the mandible

97
Q

Action of Mylohyoideus MM.?

A

raises the floor of the mouth

98
Q

Origin- medial surface of the mandible

Insertion- ventral median raphe between the bones of the mandible

Action- raises the floor of the mouth

A

Mylohyoideus MM.

99
Q

Origin- occipital & temporal bones

Insertion- ventral mandible

Action- opens mouth

A

Digastricus MM.

100
Q

Origin- zygomatic arch

Insertion- lateral side of the mandible

Action- elevates the mandible to close the mouth when chewing

A

Masseter MM.

101
Q

Masticatory Myositis

A

-an inflammatory disease in dogs that affects the muscles of mastication
-treatment usually involves steroids

102
Q

Raphae

A

-a ridged union of continous biological tissue

103
Q

Head

A

Cephalo-

104
Q

Sternum

A

Sterno-