The Principles And Key Guidelines Of Nutrition Flashcards Preview

Applying The Principles Of Nutrition To A Physical Activity Programme > The Principles And Key Guidelines Of Nutrition > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Principles And Key Guidelines Of Nutrition Deck (72):

Define nutrition.

Nutrition involves the delivery of essential materials to cells and organisms.


Define healthy eating.

‘Healthy’ eating involves eating food that promotes the optimal health of all body systems and prevents the development of disease.


Define balance diet.

A ‘balance’ diet involes regulating the quantities of the various food groups consumed.


Define diet.

Diet = the current eating pattern.


What are the three macronutrients?

  • Carbohydrate
  • Protein
  • Fat (lipids)


What are the two micronutrients?

  • Vitamins
  • Minerals


What are the building blocks that make up proteins called?

Amino acids.


Give three functions of proteins within the body.

  • Growth and development
  • Repair cells and make new ones
  • Produce amino acids


Why are some amino acids referred to as essential?

Because the body is unable to produce or synthesise them.


How many amino acids are considered essential?



Amino acids.


Name sources of protein.

  • Turkey and chicken
  • Lean cuts of beef or pork
  • Fish or shellfish
  • Various beans, nuts and seeds
  • Tofu, tempeh and other soy protein products
  • Low-fat dairy products


What are complete proteins?

Foods containing all nine essential amino acids in sufficient amounts necessary for the liver to synthesise the remaining non-essential amino acids.


What type of foods are sources of incomplete protein?

  • Vegetables
  • Cereals and grains
  • Cereal products (bread, pasta)
  • Pulses (beans, lentils, peas)
  • Nuts


What are complementary proteins?

Combining  two or more foods with incomplete proteins, to form complementary proteins, can provide adequate amounts of all the essential amino acids.


Protein requirement.

Activity type                                       g of protein per kg

Sedentary adult                                         0.8g/kg

Recreational adult exerciser                    0.8-1.5g/kg

Adult endurance athlete                          1.2-1.6/kg

Growing teenage athlete                         1.5-2.0/kg

Adult building muscle mass           

Estimated upper limits (adult)                   2.0/kg


What molecules or units make up carbohydrates?

All carbohydrates are made of up molecules or units called saccharides.

These form three basic carbohydrate types:

  • Simple carbohydrates
  • Complex carbohydrates
  • Non-starch polysaccharides (NSP)


What is the difference between a simple and a complex carbohydrate?

Simple carbohydrates have very basic structure and usually only contain one or two units of sugar, typically a combination of glucose, fructose and galactose whereas complex carbohydrates consist of many molecules or ‘units’ of glucose all joined together in long, complicated branched chains.


What are refined carbohydrates?

Refined carbohydrates contain excessive amounts of sugar (over 15g per 100g) and processed low-quality fats. Has high energy density, no vitamins or minerals and adversely affects insulin response.


What are unrefined carbohydrates?

Unrefined carbohydrates contain fructose and glucose in varying amounts, antioxidants and phytochemicals, high levels of dietary fibre, vitamins, minerals and traces of amino acids.


Polysaccharides make up which form of carbohydrate?

Complex carbohydrates.


What are the two types of fibre?

Soluble and insoluble.


What is the main function of fibre in the body?

Aids in the transport of food through the digestive tract.


What dose NSP refer to?

Fibre consists of non- starch polysaccharide (NSP) – indigestible plant material.


What is the glycaemic index (GI)?

The glycaemic index (GI) provides an indication of the relative speed with which a food is converted to glucose in and absorbed into the bloodstream.


Identify the functions of lipids.

Key functions of lipids:

  • Formation of cell membranes.
  • Formation of myelin sheath within the nervous system.
  • Constitute a large majority of the CNS and spinal core.
  • Synthesis of steroid hormones.
  • Assist in the regulation of enzymes.
  • Insulation through subcutaneous adipose tissue.
  • Protection of internal organs.
  • Transportation, storage and utilisation of fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K
  • Fuel source during low-intensity workloads.
  • Storage of energy within the adipose tissue.


Describe the structure of a triglyceride.


Describe the structure of saturated fats.


Common sources of saturated fat.

Animal                                         Non-animal

Meat – beef, pork,                      Coconut oil.

Lamb, venison.                           Palm kernel oil.

Poultry – chicken,                       Cocoa butter.

duck.                                            Palm oil.

Dairy – milk, cheese,

Yoghurt, cream, butter,



What are the two main categories of unsaturated fat?

  • Monounsaturated
  • Polyunsaturated


Sources of Monounsaturated fatty acids.

  • Olives/olive oil
  • Avocado
  • Lard
  • Beef dripping
  • Rapeseed oil
  • Peanut oil
  • Nuts
  • seeds


Sources of omega 3 fatty acids.

  • Oily fish
  • Cod liver oil
  • Flax oil
  • Walnut oil
  • Hemp seed oil
  • Pasture-reared eggs


Sources of omega 6 fatty acids.

  • Evening primrose oil
  • Safflower oil
  • Soybean oil
  • Grapeseed oil
  • Sunflower oil
  • Corn oil pumpkin seeds
  • Sesame seeds


Describe the process of hydrogenation.

Through a combination of heating and chemical manipulation, liquid unsaturated fats are essentially converted to a solid, saturated form.


What diseases are associated with the consumption of hydrogenated or trans fats?

  • Cancer
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Diabetes
  • Obesity
  • Immune system dysfunction
  • Problem with bones and tendons


Foods which contain trans fats.

  • Margarine products.
  • Pre-made biscuits.
  • Pre-made cakes.
  • Pre-made crackers products.
  • Take-away foods.
  • Pre-made pies.
  • Pasty products.
  • Pre-prepared box meals.
  • Many processed food products.


What are the main functions of cholesterol within the body?

Its functions include production of steroid hormones, synthesis of bile acids and synthesis of vitamin D.


What are the three key lipoproteins?

  • Very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL)
  • Low-density lipoproteins (LDL)
  • High-density lipoproteins (HDL)


What form of cholesterol is sometimes referred to as ‘good cholesterol’?

High-density lipoproteins (HDL)


What is the desirable upper limit of total cholesterol in the UK?



What are the two main groups of micronutrients?

Fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins


Identify the fat-soluble vitamins?

Vitamin A, D, E & K


Identify the water-soluble vitamins?

Vitamin B complex & C


Identify a food source for each fat-soluble vitamin.

Vitamin A & D

  • Butter from grass-fed cows
  • Pastured whole eggs
  • Liver
  • Seafood
  • Cod liver oil

Vitamin E

  • Unrefined vegetable oils
  • Butter
  • Organ meat
  • Whole grains
  • Raw nuts and seeds
  • Dark green leafy vegetables

Vitamin K

  • Liver
  • Pastured whole eggs
  • Whole grains
  • Dark green leafy vegetables



Identify a food source for each water-soluble vitamin.

Vitamin B complex

  • Whole unrefined grains.
  • Fresh fruit
  • Fresh vegetables
  • Raw nuts
  • Legumes
  • Seafood
  • Organ meats

Vitamin C

  • Fresh fruit
  • Fresh vegetables
  • Some organ meats


What are the seven macrominerals?

  • Calcium
  • Chloride
  • Magnesium
  • Phosphorus
  • Potassium
  • Sodium
  • Sulphur


Identify a food source for calcium.

  • Dairy products
  • Fish with soft bones (if bones eaten)
  • Green leafy vegetables


Identify a food source for chloride.

  • Natural unprocessed sea salt
  • Coconut flesh


Identify a food source for magnesium.

  • Natural unprocessed sea salt
  • Fish
  • Dairy products
  • Nuts


Identify a food source for phosphorus.

  • Animal produce
  • Whole grains
  • Nuts and legumes


Identify a food source for potassium.

  • Natural unprocessed sea salt
  • Nuts
  • Vegetables


Identify a food source for sodium.

  • Natural unprocessed sea salt
  • Meat broths
  • Zucchini


Identify a food source for sulphur.

  • Cruciferous vegetables
  • Eggs
  • Dairy products


Trace minerals.

  • Copper
  • Manganese
  • Iodine
  • Boron
  • Iron
  • Nickel
  • Selenium
  • Zinc
  • Cobalt
  • Chromium
  • Molybdenum
  • Silicon


What are the functions of antioxidants in the body?

  • Play a vital role in off setting some effects of ageing keep the body youthful.
  • Protects against heart disease, cancer and other diseases.


Sources of antioxidant nutrients.

Vitamin C

  • Citrus fruit
  • Green vegetables
  • Peppers
  • Tomatoes
  • Potatoes

Vitamin E

  • Unrefined vegetable oils
  • Egg yolks
  • Whole grains
  • Almonds
  • Nuts
  • Green leafy vegetables


  • Oyster
  • Ginger root
  • Lamb
  • Nuts
  • Grains
  • Eggs
  • Peas


  • Grains
  • Meats
  • Fish
  • Brazil nuts
  • Tuna
  • Shellfish
  • Dairy


What are the two critical functions of the digestion system?

Digestion and absorption of nutrients.


Name the organs of the digestive tract.

  • Mouth
  • Pharynx
  • Oesophagus
  • Stomach
  • Small intestine
  • Pancreas
  • Gallbladder
  • Liver
  • Large intestine or colon
  • Anus


Where within the digestive tract dose the absorption of nutrients take place?

Small intestine.


Which enzyme is responsible for the breakdown of protein in the stomach?



Salivary amylase is responsible for the breakdown of which macronutrient?



What is peristalsis?

Peristalsis is the rhythmical involuntary muscular contractions that push food into the stomach.


Where is bile produced? What is its function in the digestive process?

The liver produces bile acids which enable fats to mix with water (emulsification).


According to the guidelines behind the eatwell plate, what percentage of each macronutrient is recommended?

  • Minimum of 50% of total calories from CHO.
  • Maximum 0f 35% of total calories from fats.
  • Minimum of 55g of protein per day (9-12% of total calories)


List the eight specific healthy eating tips of the eatwell plate.

  1. Base your meals on starchy foods.
  2. Eat lots of fruit and vegetables (5 a day)
  3. Eat more fish (2 portions a week, 1 oily)
  4. Cut down on saturated fat and sugar
  5. Try eat less salt, no more than 6g a day
  6. Get active and try to be healthy weight
  7. Drink plenty of water (6-8 glasses per day)
  8. Don’t skip breakfast


List the calories per gram of each macronutrient.

Carbohydrates = 4 calories per gram

Proteins = 4 calories per gram

Fats = 9 calories per gram

Alcohol = 4 calories per gram


What dose DRV refer to?

UK Dietary Reference Values (DRV): recommended nutritional intakes for the population.


What dose the RDI refer to?

Recommended Daily Intake (RDI): a system used to provide minimum nutrient requirements.


What are the elements that must be placed on a food product’s label?

  • The product name.
  • A total volume or weight.
  • A date mark or best before date.
  • Recommended storage instructions.
  • An ingredients list (including potential allergens).
  • Manufacturer’s packer’s or retailer’s details.
  • A place of origin for the product.


What is the traffic light system?

Colour-coded nutritional info label showing at a glance if the food has high, medium or low amounts of fat, saturated fat, sugar and salt.


What is the Food Standards Agency responsible for?

Food safety and food hygiene across the UK.


Artificial sweeteners.

  • Aspartame
  • Sucralose
  • Acesulfame
  • Saccharin