the radicalisation of the state 1933-41 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in the radicalisation of the state 1933-41 Deck (91):
1

what are the three phrases in the development of the Nazi regime

1 the legal revolution 1933-34 in which hitler depended on his political allies and consolidate his power through legal means
2 creating the new germany 1934-37 hitler worried about public opinion at home and abroad. he avoided confronting powerful groups e.g. the church and army. he knew Germany wasnt ready for war
3 radicalisation of the state 1938-39, by 1939 the regime was strong and the economy had improved and germany was ready for war, therefore by 1939 hitler took control of the army by dismissing Blomberg and Fritsch and unleashed persecution of his racial enemies

2

who was blomberg

army general

3

who was fritsch

army general

4

what were the 3 main aspects of the Nazi ideology in radicalisation

social Darwinism and race theory- he used this to justify his theory of racial superiority and eugenics. the jews, blacks and slavs were inferior, the nazis wanted to purify the race by eliminating these 'germs'. the aryan had the right to rule inferiors
volksgemeinschaft- was twisted by anti-sematic and racial thinking. inferiors were excluded from the community
lebensraum- opening space for white superior race. belived that germanys destiny lay in the east, thereby invading Poland. battle ground for race inhalation

5

how do you spell peoples community

V O L S K G E M E I N S C H A F T

6

how do you spell living space

L E B E N S R A U M

7

when was the reich central office set up? who was the expert and why was it set up?

1936
ritter, 'scientific advisor'
to fight against gypsies and make locating and classifying them easier

8

what was the decree against gypsies called and when was it

1938, decree for the struggle against the gypsy plague

9

where were gypsies deported to and when

poland
1939

10

what religious sects were banned and when

jehovah witnesses, christian scientists and seventh day activists
november 1933

11

in what circumstances could the ban be lifted on religious sects

those who proved their willingness to coordinate with the regime. the gestaop reported on their activity

12

describe jehovah witnesses opposition against the regime. by a certain date how many were killed

they were the only sect to show hostility because they believed you should only serve god, therefore they refused to salute hitler
many were arrested
1945, 10,000
the regime failed to break their resisance

13

describe the seventh day activiests support for the regime

they welcomed the nazis and described it as germanys rebirth. the ban was lifted after 2 weeks as they agreed to display swastika flag and conclude services with a 'heil hitler'.
they agreed not to support Jews or race enemies with its welfare system

14

define asocials

range of people who were considered social outcasts

15

when was the mass round up of tramps and beggers and how many were there

september 1933.
300,000

16

whats the differnce between orderly tramps and disorderly tramps and why did they have to make these distinctions

orderly those who were fit for work with no convictions
disorderly habitual criminals
there wasnt enough room in the concentration camps for all tramps so only the disorderly were sent there

17

what was the 'asocial colony' and when was it set up

it was to re-educate asocials
1936

18

why did the Nazis disapprove of homosexuals

because they saw it as perverted and a threat to racial health

19

what significant event happened in 1933 in regard to homosexuals

homosexual literature was destroyed and the institute of sex was burnt down by nazi students

20

how many homosexuals were arrested between 1936-38

22,000

21

what did homosexuals wear in concentration camps

pink triangles

22

how did the Nazis plan to cure homosexuality

through castration. if they refused they were sent to concentration camps and beaten to death

23

what percentage of homosexal prisoners died

60%

24

why didnt lesbians face the same discrimination as homosexuals

because they were considered asocials

25

what was the law called against the disabled and when was it and what did it do

the law for the prevention of hereditary deceased progeny
july 1933
introduced compulsory sterilization

26

regarding the law for steralisation, how old did someone have to be to be steralisied and what age could force be used

over 10
14

27

what was banned for aryans but permitted for non aryans

abortions and contraception

28

how many people were sterilised

400,000

29

what does euthanasia mean

intentionally ending life

30

when was euthanasia initiated and why

1939
because a father wrote a personal letter to hitler asking him to 'put down this creature'

31

who was incharge of the euthanasia program

philip bouhler

32

what was the T4 program

disabled children would be sent to asylums and injected or starved to death. parents were reassured that their children were receiving the best care

33

how many children died in the T4 program

5000

34

what opposition did the T4 program face

complaints against boulher for murder worried te regime
pastor braune wrote a letter protesting, he was later arrested by the gestapo
the pope intervened and therefore in 1941 hitler halted the program in 1941

35

what did the T4 program provide

the techniques and trained personnel for the holocaust

36

decribe the boycott of jewish shops

1st april 1933
goebbels organised propaganda to maximise the impact of the boycott
it was carried out by SA man and gangs who marked out what businesses should be targeted and intimidated would be customers
the boycott showed the unleashing of nazi violence, however in reality hitler was anxious to get SA under control and about public opinion
hitler only intended the boycott to be brief. his aim was to avoid social instability while he carried out his legal revolution

37

what opposition did the boycott face

many germens used jewish shops to show their disapproval and the boycott was abandoned after one day

38

what law dismissed the Jews from civil services and when was it

april 1933
law for the restoration of the professional civil service

39

why was the law to dismiss all jews from civil services complicated

because of the definition of Jews- if your parents of grand parents were jewish
and hindenburg insisting that Jewish veterns to be excluded

40

how many jews left germany in 1933

37,000

41

what opposition did the discrimination of jews face

many germans were reluctant to give up their fmaily doctor
a jewish men was assured not to listen to the signs and that he was welcome to use the pub
nazi activists demanded the removal of a jewish statue, but the local party boss refused
however opposition was rare and most people were unhappy about the discrimination but kept their heads down

42

what discrimination did jews face in 1933-37

they were banned from using public swimming pools and businesses put signs up saying that Jews werent welcome.
a middle class jewish vetern was banned from using his faviourite restuarant

43

when was the nuremberg laws and what were they?

1935
anti-sematic legalisations. frantic anti-sematics thought that previous policies were too lenient and therefore urged Hitler to increase prosecution
at the Nuremberg rally he announced that it was time to 'deal with the Jews'
the laws were implemented 15 september

44

as part of the nuremberg laws, what was the reich citizenship law mean

you could only be german if you had pure german blood. jews and non aryans were given less rights.

45

as part of the nurmberg laws, what was the law for the protection of german blood and honour

it outlawed marriage between aryans and non aryans and illegal for germans to marry jews or engage in any sexual contact
the law was later extended to permit any physical contact, you could be convicted if so
german women were pressured to leave their jewish husbands through unemployment due to anti-sematic policies

46

when was the supplementary decree on reich citizenship law and what was it

november 1935
defined being jewish has have 3 jewish grandfather

47

what does mischinge mean

half jew

48

what discrimination did Jewish doctors face

they were attacked by propaganda as being a threat, it was laced with inappropriate and malicious actions.
they were banned april 1933

49

how was there discrimination in education

law against overcrowding of german schools and universities april 1933, restricted the number of jewish children in schools
resources and attention should be focused on aryans rather than 'enemies of the state'
propaganda stressed that an educated Jew was more of a threat

50

what discrimination was there in the press

october 1933 reich press law applied strict cencorship and closed jewish publication
journalists were silenced and forced to leave the country

51

when was the union with Austria, describe it

march 1938
the union with austia was banned in the tov,
the takeover was achieved without a shot being fired and the people welcomed the troop
the 'bloodless victory' enhanced Hitlers reputation

52

what other bloodless victory did hitler achieved septmeber 1938

hitler risked war with britain and france by demanding Sudentenland being handed over to him.
B and F agreed to hand it over

53

when did hitler occupy Czechoslovakia

1939

54

when was the Nazi-soviet pact signed and what was it?

aug 1939
the USSR agreed not to oppose german invasion of poland

55

when did germany invade poland

1st sep 1939

56

when did britain and france declare war on germany

3rd sept 1939

57

the occupation of austria led to a rapid acceleration of ....

economic campaign against jew

58

what was the decree of registration of jewish property and when was it

april 1938
this was the start of the aryanisation of properties and businesses.
in 1938 there were 40,000 jewish businesses, in 1939 there was only 8000

59

when were jewish passports stamped with a J

October 1938

60

in 1939 what names did Jewish men and women need to take on

sarah and isrel

61

what does judenfrei mean

jew free

62

in 1933 how many jews voluntary left germany and who left easily

37,000
zionists and those with transferable jobs

63

why was making germany judenfrei difficult

because countries werent keen to accept large numbers of Jews
nazi policies made it difficult to leave due to stopping wealth

64

where were jewish children sent in 1938/39 and how many

britain 9000

65

what was set up in 1938 to force Jewish emigration to austria

central office of jewish emigration

66

who took over the central office of jewish emirgation in jan 1939 and what did he stand for

heydrich
he promoted the emigration of jews 'by any means possible'

67

what was the reichknstallnacht and when was it

9-10 november 1938
goebbels surprise to hitler for the 15 year anniversary of the munich putsch
Jewish homes, businesses were vandalized and the synagogue was burnt down. jews were 1000's beaten up and 91 killed
its described as a pogrom
the organisation was planned by the Nazis but portayed by propaganda was 'the national soil boiling over'. the SS were told not to wear uniform
the police was instructed not to intervene. the fire department watched the synagogue burn down and only step in to stop the fire spreading
goebbels prevented insurance companies from compensating jewish property
the decree for restoration of the street scene, required Jews to pay for the damages

68

what was germans reaction to the reichknstallnacht

the events didnt receive support
some joined the violence but others were horrified
a british offical in berlin said ' he had not met a single german who approved.

69

what did the war with Poland provide?

new territories in which Jews could settle and more Jews bought under Nazi control
therefore the empathise moved towards deportation and resettlement rather than emigration

70

what did the invasion of Poland split the country into

those occupied by USSR, those under nazi control and the general government

71

describe the general government

controlled by Hans frank and was the dumping ground for Jews

72

describe how the madagascar plan came about

the general government couldnt cope with the mass influx of western Jews and Austrian Jews between November 1939 and feb 1940.
hans frank complained

73

who first invented the idea of deporting Jews to madagascar

the french, when french was conquested in 1940 the foreign ministry's department for internal german affairs stole the idea

74

describe the madagascar plan

madagascar would be made available for the Jewish question.
the plan was to send 4 million Jews, labour workers would be sent first to prepare for the influx of Jews
the sale of Jewish property in europe would finance the initial expedition
the environment was intended to be so harsh that the Jews would be eliminated in the long-term

75

why was the madagascar plan unsuccessful

war with britian disrupted mass deportation therefore by october 1940 Hitler was already planning operation barbossa
the Jews would be sent to siberia once the USSR had been invaded

76

as well as madagascar, where was Eichmann planning on sending the Jews

palistine but madagascar seemed more viable

77

when and how did Germany conquest france

october 1940
used a series of blitzkrieg (lighting war)

78

when and what was operation barbossa

june 1941
invade USSR and dismiss the nazi-soviet pact

79

how many Jews did operation barbossa bring under Nazi control

3 million

80

when and how issued the general order to kill communists and jewish sympathisers

july 1941
goering

81

by 1941 how were Jews discriminated against

banned from buying radios NOVand banned from buying chocolate DEC 1939
banned from war time rationing for clothes and shores 1940, JULY they were only allowed to enter shops between 4pm-5pm
1941 jews had to wear the star of david

82

why was ghettoisation invented

to deal with the masses of jews increasing through military conquest

83

when and where was the first ghetto set up

1939 Poland

84

describe the conditions of the ghettos

restrictions on food, medical supplies and goods
6 people to a room
few rooms had running water
disease spread easily

85

describe efforts of resistance in the ghettos

black market for food smuggled in
jewish leaders organised prays and religious festivals dispite the fact they were banned
illegal schools and printing press
most leaders did their best to relive suffering, however they were accused of collaborating with Nazi leaders

86

who are the einsatzgruppen

they were a special group who were involed in mass killings, they played a role in ethnic cleansing and killed half a million jews

87

by what year were jewish men routinely shot

1941

88

What’s the different types of ghettos

Closed ghettos were closed off by walls, or by fences with barbed wire.
Open ghettos had no walls or fences, but there were restrictions on entering and leaving
Destruction ghettos were tightly sealed off and existed for between two and six weeks before the Germans and/or their collaborators deported or shot the Jewish population concentrated in them.

89

you could only be german if you had pure german blood. jews and non aryans were given less rights.

Reich citizenship law

90

it outlawed marriage between aryans and non aryans and illegal for germans to marry jews or engage in any sexual contact
the law was later extended to permit any physical contact, you could be convicted if so
german women were pressured to leave their jewish husbands through unemployment due to anti-sematic policies

Law for the protection of German blood

91

defined being jewish has have 3 jewish grandfather

Supplementary decree for citizenship law