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Flashcards in The respiratory system Deck (25)
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From the upper nasal cavity to the bronchioles the respiratory tract is lined with a specialized mucosa, what is it called? Describe the cell layer and its functions.

Respiratory epithelium that functions to filter, warm and moisten the air. This cell layer is composed of a ciliated pseudo stratified columnar epithelium interspersed with goblet cells. (It has 5 cell types in all)


What is Kartagener syndrome and what are its side-effects?

A genetic disorder in which the protein dynein is not functional or absent. Dynein is critical to cilia beating. These individuals often suffer from frequent respiratory infections since they lack the function of the much-ciliary elevator.


Which are deeper in the respiratory tract, cilia or goblet cells?

Cilia this is to prevent retrograde flow of mucous.


What are cell types are the inferior, middle and superior conchae lined with?

Inferior and middle - respiratory epithelium.
Superior - olfactory epithelium.
They can be identified by lack of cilia organization of nuclei and underlying nerve


What cell type lies on the false vocal cords (vestibular folds)?

Respiratory epithelium. Serous glands in lamina propria.


What cell type lies on the true vocal cords?

Stratified squamous epitheliums. (vocal ligament parallel elastic fibers. Vocalis muscle, skeletal, alters sounds)


Regular rings of hyalin cartilage are found where in the respiratory tract?

In the trachea. There are 16-20 incomplete rings.


Cartilage of irregular rings or plates are found where in the respiratory tract?



Do bronchioles contain cartilage? What is prominent in bronchioles?

NO. Smooth muscle is prominent in larger bronchioles, reactive, and regulatory.


Mucosa is wavy or folded due to post-mortem contraction of smooth muscle is characteristic of what structure in the resp tract?

Regular bronchioles.


Where does most regulation of ventilation occur?

At the level of the regular bronchioles due to the large cross sectional area, lack of cartilage, and presence of smooth muscle.


In terminal bronchioles what are goblet cells replaced by? What are their function?

Clara cells. They are tall cells that share the b membrane w/ cuboidal epithelium and extend taller than the surrounding epithelium. They have dense granules in their apical cytoplasm containing protein that is secreted along with aqueous solution to moisten the epithelium.


Outpocketings of alveoli in bronchiole walls permit gas exchange in what part of the resp tract?

Respiratory bronchioles


Very thin crescent shaped nuclei are characteristic of what cell type in the alveolar septum?

Capillary endothelial cells.


Alveolar macrophages are also called?

Dust cells.


Compare tracheal cartilage with bronchus cartilage?

Tracheal cartilage rings are very uniform while bronchial cartilage is irregular.


Compared to vessels elsewhere in the body how do vessels in the pulmonary circulation compare? (Hint: the pulmonary circulation is at a much lower pressure)

All blood vessels in lung sections are likely to contain red blood cells and have thinner than expected walls.


How can bronchi be distinguished from alveoli on a glass slide?

The bronchi have a larger size and comparatively intense blue staining of nuclei clustered in the respiratory epithelium of their lumen.


What are features of bronchi?

Irregular patches of cartilage surrounding them. Smooth muscle layer in the lamina propria is fairly prominent. There are fewer goblet cells than seen in the trachea but with very prominent ciliated pseudo stratified columnar epithelium.


How does a bronchi differ from a bronchiole?

Primarily because the bronchiole has no cartilage.


Histologically describe a Type I Pneumocyte:

Very flat nucleus, thin cytoplasm


Histologically describe a Type II Pneumocyte:

Bulge into alveolar space, apical microvilli. Produces surfactant found at septum junctions.


Histologically describe a endothelial cell in the alveoli

Lines pulmonary capillary wall. Crescent shaped nucleus visible in septum.


Histologically describe a Vocal cord

Stratified squamous. No glands in mucosa. Parallel elastic vocal ligament.


Histologically describe a vestibular fold

ciliated pseudo stratified columnar. Numerous serous glands in mucosa