Flashcards in The Respiratory System Deck (35):
What is external respiration?
It is the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the inspired air inside the lungs and the blood
What is internal respiration?
it is the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood and the body's tissue cells
What are the two main requirements for respiration?
1) respiratory surface, must be large enough for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide to occur quickly enough to meet the body's needs
2) respiration must take place in a moist environment, so that oxygen and carbon dioxide are dissolved in water
What are the different types of respiratory systems in animals?
1) outer skin
3) Tracheal System
5) book lungs
How can animals breathe through their outer skin?
animals like earthworms breathe this way, some amphibians are also "skin breathers"
Oxygen diffuses into a network of thin walled capillaries just below the skin, and carbon dioxide diffuses out.
~skin must be wet or moist
How can animals breathe through gills?
Fish and many aquatic invertebrates like clams, mussels, crayfish and crabs, breathe this way. Gills are extension nor folds in the body surface that increase the surface air through which gases are exchanged.
~oxygen from the water diffuses across the gill surfaces into the capillaries, and carbon dioxide diffuses out into the external environment
How do animals breathe through the tracheal system?
Insects breathe this way, which involves an internal system of branching respiratory tubes called tracheae. They connect body cells directly to the environment outside the insect's body by even smaller tubes called spiracles.
~oxygen enters the body through the spiracles and diffuses into the tracheae. Carbon dioxide then diffuses out of the body in the opposite direction.
***THE INSECTS CIRCULATORY SYSTEM IS NOT INVOLVED IN TRANSPORTING OXYGEN***
How do animals breathe with lungs?
~most land animals (mammals, birds, reptiles, most amphibians) use this lungs to breathe
~the lungs are sacs lined with moist epithelium
~oxygen diffuses across the epithelium into the capillaries, and carbon dioxide diffuses in the opposite direction into the external environment
How do animals breathe with book lungs?
~spiders use this method of breathing
~looks like a book with many pages (increases surface area)
What is respiratory efficiency?
the rate of O2 and CO2 exchange
~many factors--therefore it can change
What is a spirograph?
represents the amount of air that moves into and out of the lungs with each breath, as measured by a device called a spirometer
What terms are used to describe the features of a spirograph?
~inspiratory reserve volume
~expiratory reserve volume
What is tidal volume?
is the volume of air that is inhaled and exhaled in a normal breathing movement when the body is at rest
What is inspiratory reserve volume?
it is the additional volume of air that can be taken into the lungs beyond a regular, or tidal inhalation
What is expiratory reserve volume?
it is the additional volume of air that can be forced out of the lungs beyond a regular, or tidal, exhalation
What is vital capacity?
AKA total lung volume capacity, is the total volume of gas that can be moved into or out of the lungs. It can be calculated as tidal volume +inspiratory reserve volume+expiratory reserve volume
What is residual volume?
it is the amount of gas that remains in the lungs and the passageways of the respiratory system even after a full exhalation. This gas never leaves the respiratory system. If it did, the lungs and respiratory passages would collapse. The residual volume has little value for gas exchange because it is not exchanged with air from outside the body
In inhalation how much oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen and trace gasses are inhaled?
0.04% carbon dioxide
79.02% nitrogen and trace gases
In exhalation, how much oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen and trace gasses are exhaled?
4.49% carbon dioxide
79.02% nitrogen and trace gases
What are three facts about lungs?
1. lungs are filled with 350 million tiny air sacs called alveoli
2. The average adult lung is about 30 centimeters long and weighs about 800 grams, but 90% us air and 10% is tissue
3. Smoking a pack of cigarettes a day will deposit about 250 millimeters of tar per year directly into the lungs .
non-smokers average about 15-20 years longer lifespan than people who smoke
What is the nasal passages (sinuses) functions?
~air enters through the nostrils
~(step 1) warms air (blood in capillaries)
~lined with cells that release mucous, moistens (step 2)
~lined with tiny hairs (cilia) that capture/filter particles, bacteria or viruses (step 3). These hairs wave back and forth, forcing particles upwards
What is the function of the pharynx (throat)?
Located at the back of the mouth
~leads into two separate tubes: one for digestion (esophagus) and one for respiration (trachea)
What is the function of the epiglottis?
~a thin flap of skin that covers the opening to the respiratory tract
~prevents food from entering the respiratory tract while swallowing--> can not eat/swallow and breathe at the same time
~only opens when someone is breathing
What is the function of the trachea (windpipe)?
~large tube leading to the lungs
~the outside is lined with strong, half-ringed flexible cartilage muscle (like a vacuum cleaner hose)
~cartilage keeps trachea open at all times
~contains cilia that wave back and forth, forcing particles upwards into the mouth cavity and nasal passages
~contains the larynx (upper portion) or voice box. vocal cords vibrate when air is forced down the trachea. Vibrations create sound
What is the function of Bronchus?
~trachea splits into two smaller tubes-bronchi
~each tube enters one lung
~diameter is smaller than the diameter of the trachea
What is the function of the bronchioles?
~bronchus in each lung, continue to branch into smaller tubes called bronchioles
~there are several thousands of these tubes
~their diameter is smaller than those of the bronchus
What is the function of an alveolus?
~located at the end of each bronchiole
~small sac-like structure
~looks like a bunch of grapes
~millions of alveoli are located in each lung
~its walls are very thin *site of diffusion of gases
~the outside of the alveoli are moist
~the outside of the alveoli are lined with very small capillaries
What is the function of the capillaries?
~tiny thin blood vessels (red blood cells travel in single file)
What is the function of the rib cage and rib muscle?
~helps organisms exhale and inhale by relaxing and contracting
What is the function of the diaphragm?
~very thin muscle located above the stomach ?below lungs
~helps organisms inhale(contracting) and exhale(relaxing)
What is hemoglobin?
an iron-containing protein found in red blood cells, which blinds to and transports oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body
~about 99% of O2 that reaches cells is carried by hemoglobin, while the remaining 1% of O2 is dissolved in the watery blood plasma
~about 23% of Co2 is carried in the blood by hemoglobin, while the remaining 77% is carried in the blood plasma
What are the respiratory system disorders?
Pneumonia: alveoli fill with thick fluid, making gas exchange difficult
Asthma: airways are inflamed due to irritation and bronchioles constrict due to muscle spasams
What are chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD)?
Bronchitis: airways are inflamed due to infection (acute) or due to an irritant (chronic). Coughing brings up mucus
Emphysema: Alveoli burst and fuse into enlarged air spaces. Surface area for gas exchange reduced. It is incurable.
What is cystic fibrosis?
A genetic disease that causes a thick build-up of mucus in the lungs, resulting in infection, inflammation, and damage to the lung tissues. It is incurable.