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Flashcards in The use of psychological knowledge in psychology Deck (6)
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1

Social

The main application of prejudice research is society have been to reduce prejudice. This has been used in classrooms (jigsaw technique) to reduce racial bias in multi-ethnic schools. Using our knowledge of stereotypes, we can educate people to be more mindful of the similarities that exist between groups rather than focusing on the differences.
Intergroup hostility is facilitated by lack of equal status contact. This explain why communities divided by physical barriers or educational and employment integration often experience conflict.

2

Cognitive 1

A general understanding of how memory works can be used in everyday contexts, such as mnemonics to aid revision or chunking bits of information together to remember a telephone number.
Also help in the treatment of learning impairments such as dyslexia; teachers can simplify and shorten instructions and information so that working memory is not overloaded.
Cognitive therapies have been used with dementia patients to practise memory tasks and reduce their confusion.

3

Cognitive 2

Significant contribution is whether eyewitness testimony can be relied on. There as has been considerable research examining the factors affecting reliability of memory, such as whether age, anxiety or post-event information can affect our ability to recall an incident and identify the perpetrator. The academic research of Devlin Report (1976) which called into question eyewitness reliability following several cases of false imprisonment based on eyewitness identification led to recent changes in the Police and Criminal Evidence Act Codes of Practice in the way eyewitnesses are asked to identity a perpetrator from a line up.

4

Biological

Understanding the physiological changes that underline addiction to drugs has furthered treatments to the extent that some researchers are beginning to develop pharmacological treatments that may be used in the future to help avoid relapse.
Insight to the role of genes, hormones and brain structures on aggressive behaviour can also benefit society, as by understanding the causes of behaviours it is possible to avoid it. Research shows how aggression can result from the interaction between genes, hormonal factors and brain structures. This provides an explanation as to why some people maybe more aggressive than others and potentially allows for predictions of risk to be made. This might allow for those identified as at risk to experience a modified environment that reduces the risk of aggressive behaviour patterns developing, therefore benefitting both the individual and society.

5

Learning

In school’s teachers employ a rewards system, such as stars for good work, which is positively reinforcing behaviour.
Watson moved into advertising and applied the learning theory principles to shape consumer behaviour; classical conditioning is a popular marketing strategy used to associate products with pleasurable feelings for consumers. This could also be regarded as a form of social control because our consumer behaviour is being influenced by companies wishing to make a profit.

6

Clincial

Negative issues with how social control can be exerted through the misuse of diagnoses and treatments, and there are issues with the reliability and validity of diagnoses suggesting that the system is not perfect.
Successful treatments have led to relief of symptoms enabling people who once might have been consigned to a mental institution to live in the community. It could be argued that the development of pharmaceutical drugs has been the most significant contribution to society. Before this, patients would have been institutionalised and subjected to physically invasive and aggressive treatments, such as electroconvulsive therapy, insulin coma therapy and lobotomy. These treatments caused significant injury and the possibility of death.