THEME 3 - CONTROL OF THE PEOPLE Flashcards Preview


Flashcards in THEME 3 - CONTROL OF THE PEOPLE Deck (59)
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How did lenin view the media

As a key way of advancing the revolution and ensuring communist control


Decree on press - Nov 1917

gave govt power to close any newspapers that supported counter-revolution


State monopoly of advertising

Nov 1917 - ensured that only the govt could publish adverts


Nationalisation of Petrograd Telegraph Agency

Nov - gave the government control of electronic means of communication


Revolutionary Tribunal of the press

Jan 1918 - power to censor the press and any journalist who committed crimes against the people could be arrested by checka


All Russian telegraph agency

1925 - solely responsible for distributing news


By when had Lenin banned all opposition socialist newspapers ?

1918 - also banned papers supporting tsar and PG


How many newspapers had been banned by 1921?

200 newspapers and 575 printing presses - made easier under war communism because it allowed govt to control stocks of paper


Highest selling newspaper

PRAVDA (communist party newspaper) - also Izvestia (soviet newspaper)



Disliked by Lenin as didn't back marxist views but understood that it gave the communist party/revolution a face that people could follow - promoted by members of govt - using Lenin as medium of propaganda Jan '18 - Aug - GOD LIKE FIGURE - LEADERS REFERRED BACK TO LENIN TO LEGITIMISE THEIR ACTIONS


Attempted assassination on Lenin

30th August 1918 - survived and viewed as modern day christ


Why did the cult of Lenin develop

- older communists believed that peasants needed a simple message
- believed they should use techniques promoted by Orthodox church


COL in cicvil war

scarce resources but still statues and photos of Lenin produced


Media under Lenin

- govt collaborated with avant-garde artists to produce posters promoting revolution
- 1922 Felix Dzerzhinsky introduced Glavit = organisation that saw a systematic approach to censorship - GPU put in charge of policing every publication in USSR
- professional censors employed
- all books investigated for anticommunist bias and GPU compiled list of banned books - libraries purged


Media under Stalin

-1930s works of Kamenev, Zinoviev and Trotsky purged
-Lenins work edited to remove any complimentary statements about Stalins opponents
-soviet history rewritten to emphasise Stalins role in revolution
-1928 glavit controlled access to economic data and restrictions placed on what media could publish - could not publish suicides etc


Media under Khrushchev

-govt got consumer magazines to publish letters in aim to improve consumer goods - often resulted in criticism of quality of goods
-e.g Rabotnista (woman worker) wrote letters that expressed problems around domestic violence, drunken behaviour and inequalities in the home - govt focused on lack of devotion of men to communism
-cinema based around traditional themes e.g WW2 but instead of focusing on Stalin they focused on commitment of the people -"ballad of a solider" (1959)
-1960-64 tv successful in supporting regime e.g space race shown - 1961 1million watched 5hr documentary on Yuri Gagarin's space flight


Media under Brezhnev

-tv focused on old culture eg WW2 but also life of working class
-govt kept extent of Afghan war hidden from public with censorship
-govt ensured Brezhnev speeches were transmitted and he was centre of domestic coverage (1970s backfired a she became unwell - unable to speak)
-western magazines available e.g vogue


Conclusion of control of media

- v important during Lenin era as allowed govt to consolidate power
- stalin era focus on propaganda made him appear god like
- Khrushchev more focus on the ordinary person
- Brezhnev - control of media limited as people abel to buy western magazines which undermined foundations of soviet society - exposed inequality in the system


Cult of Stalin (1928-54) - CONSOLIDATED POWER OF CP

-myth of two leaders led people to believe that Stalin equally responsible for oct rev ; publication 1938 of two histories of communist party censored, socialist realist paintings created showing Stalin and lenin together, trotsky removed from photos with lenin
-paintings depicted Stalin as next revolutionary leader - LENINS HEIR e.g Grigory Shegal's "leader, teacher, friend"
-Stalin known as Vozhd (leader) - his birthday was a national holiday with parades
-after WW2 cult changed and stalin said to be military genius -depicted in pictures via white uniform connoting military success


Cult of Khrushchev

-revived cult of Lenin - slogan "lenin lives" - Destalinisation
-established his own cult which he said was disciple of lenin - responsible for space race and hero of WW2
- failure of virgin land scheme and corn campaign meant khrushchev was associated with failure elevated by fact USSR were behind USA in production


Cult of Brezhnev

- cult based around Stalin
-1964 cult of personality was pragmatic and was needed for political reasons
- Brezhnev depicted as great Leninist, a military hero (promoted to marshal of red army + received 60 medals), dedicated to detente, man of the people
-promoted his cult through festivals e.g 50th anniversary of rev
- CULT WAS FLAWED - veterans of WWII hated exaggeration of Brezhnev's role - size of red army meant ppl found his desire for peace laughable - cult of Stalin created atmosphere of fear whereas Brezhnev's was mocked and provoked cynicism - allowed jokes to be made of him


Why did lenin hat the orthodox church

It was an ally of the Tsar and extremely rich - CP was suspicious of church because religious values contradicted communist values - religious groups were independent of communism so could easily organise opposition


religion under lenin (church)

• October 1917 Decree on Land gave the peasants the right to seize land from the Church
• January 1918 Separation of the Church and State and Church and School meant that the Church lost its privilege place in society. Church land and property was nationalised and religious teachings in school was banned
• January 1922 Soviet Constitution freedom of conscience for Soviet people, right was given but Soviet courts lacked the power to force the government to accept people’s religious views.
• November 1918 Orthodox priests were murdered by the Cheka and by 1920 the priests had been killed


church and terror

• November 1917 Archpriest Ivan Kochurov was murdered
• January 1918 Metropolitan Vladmir was tortured and shot
• January 1919 Orthodox priests were murdered after the Church decree excommunicating the Bolsheviks
• Catholic priests were treated differently because they had been a persecuted minority- they were deported and executions began during the Civil War
• Civil War 1921 Church property was seized to fund famine relief
• The League of the Militant Godless 1925- took peasants up in airplanes to show them there was no God


Religion in 1920s

• Established the Living Church 1922 which claimed to be a reformed version of the Orthodox Church and withdrew power from the Orthodox Church
• April 1923 organised a national congress which gave power to ordinary people
• HOWEVER- the leader of the Living Church Archbishop Vedenskii debated science and religion with Lunacharsky and gained support that science could not disprove God. These were stopped in 1925
• The policy of splitting the Church was successful but the Church split did not diminish Church growth nor the belief in God


Islam (lenin)

- Decree Separating the Church and State and Church and School January 1918 had been originally to seize property of the waafs, but this was reversed and the waafs continued to fund Muslim schools and CP leaders encouraged Muslims to join the CP - there was no link between Islam and Tsarism
- 1920s campaign against islam as they were said to encourage 'crimes based on custom' e.g infringing upon womens rights - also knew islam had support of asia
-closed mosques
-discouraged pilgrimages
-attacked islamic shrines
-campaigns against women in the chador
-anti-islamic museums near holy places


Religion under Stalin

-ordered closure of many churches during collectivisation
-NKVD purged priests of islamic faith
-attacked groups that were protecting islam from 'marxist pollution' e.g sufi groups which were destroyed by 1936but traditions still practised


religion during war (stalin)

-wanted to appeal to patriotism of Russian citizens so supported the church
-church provided comfort for bereaved families and soldiers found comfort in god
-communist publications against religion closed
metropolitan sergey was given residence in moscow
-Stalin said he would end censorship of religious magazines
-414 churches reopened


Religion under Khrushchev

-much more aggressive towards the church because going to church was a form of resistance and the church began to prophesy that the USSR would fall within a generation
-churches reopened in WW11 shut
-anti-religious propaganda reintroduced
-anti-religious magazines produced e.g science '60
-roman catholic monasteries shut '59
-orthodox converts surveyed
-people refused access to their holy sites
-campaigns targeted women as 80% of church goers were female and they would pass on beliefs to children - greater push for men to be main educators of kids
-nuns targeted for not carrying out their natural duty
-teachers expected to convey anti-religious message


successes of Khrushchev's religious reforms

-KGB closed down thousands of churches and reduced no. of church buildings from 8000 in 1958 to 5000 in 1964 - BUT some women refused and organised campaigns to protect their religious freedoms and some took their kids out of school to protect them from anti-religious teachings - NEW WAVE OF DISSIDENTS 1960-70