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Flashcards in THEORIES Deck (16):

What is Gessel's maturation theory?

-Studied children's biological maturation.
-Observed large number of children to find abilities most children share in certain age groups-to find milestones.
-Noted each child goes through sequence at own pace.
-Development was predetermined and environment has little influence.
-If child experiences delayed development then it is hereditary rather than environmental.


What do the critics say about Gessel's theory?

-Not helpful in explaining individual or cultural differences for children with learning difficulties.


What was Rosenthal and Doherty's theory?

-Children who are in rivalry with sibling have been bullied by primary caregiver.
-Behave like this to try and gain sense of control and power in the house where they feel powerless.
-Parents/caregiver responsible for deliberately causing sibling conflicts and encouraging competition.


What did Piaget and Erikson think about family dysfunction?

-Result of a lack of education and inadequate role modelling.
-E.g. parenting style, mental health issues, neglect and abuse etc.


What is the Holmes-Rahe scale?

-Rate and measure stress caused by life events.
-Identifies 43 life events with a different score.
-Asked individuals to score how events they've experienced affect their stress levels.
-The higher the score, the more likely individual was to become unwell.


What did the critics say about the Holmes-Rahe scale?

-Each individual is unique and and deals with stress factor differently, but Holmes and Rahe assumed everyone deals the same way.
-E.g. divorce they believed everyone would act the same way but... PERSON A=happy, relieved and PERSON B= upset, hard to cope.


What is the social disengagement theory?

-Withdrawing from involvement.
-Cummings and Henry (1961)-older people naturally withdraw from social involvement as they get older.
-Found older people have restricted opportunities to interact with others.


What factors affect social disengagement?

-Ill health=poor mobility, poor vision and hearing make interactions more difficult.
-Geographical mobility=moving away from friends and family.
-Retirement=less contact with people.
-Ill health of family and friends=visit and contact less.


What did Cummings say about the social disengagement theory?

-Older people experience reduced social contact and become less concerned with expectations.
-She concluded this is appropriate and healthy behaviour and it is part of ageing.


What did Bromley say about the social disengagement theory?

-Argued older people need to disengage to remain active in order to prevent disengagement going too far
-Providing facilities was not enough.
-People need to be shown how to use them and encouraged not to have a negative attitude.


What do the critics say about the social disengagement theory?

-Statistically less evidence to support it.
-Majority of older people remain socially active and involved with family and friends.
-Many rather spend time with people they feel close to rather than making new friends.


Why might Henry and Cummings theory be outdated?

-Mobile phones.
-Car/transport access.


What is the activity theory?

-Havinghurst (1960's) took an ill health study of older people.
-Found rather than the inevitable decline in interest in life and isolation, older people tend to adjust to the ageing process.


What did Havinghurst state about older people?

-Adults are happiest when they stay active and maintain social interactions.
-Older people can be satisfied by taking on new roles following retirement. E.g. charity work or learn a new skill.
-When people remain physically and socially active their overall satisfaction and well being is increased.
-Theory is important for reducing risk of illness and increasing longevity.


What is Bandura's social learning theory?

-Learning behaviour through observing and imitating.
-Child decides whether to imitate the behaviour according to positive or negative reinforcement.
-Used the Bobo doll experiment.


What are the 4 principles of Bandura's social learning?

-ATTENTION; focusing on the model.
-RETENTION; observed behaviour is retained in memory.
-REPRODUCTION; behaviour is imitated.
-MOTIVATION; repeat or stop behaviour due to consequence or reward.