Theories of Language Development & Models of Language Disorders Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Theories of Language Development & Models of Language Disorders Deck (122):
1

What is an orderly set of statements that describes and predicts a behavior? It gives meaning to what we're seeing

Theory

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Psychological Theory

Provides framewor, human growth, how they develop, how they learn, & how they acquire language

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Why do we have theories?

Provides us framework for understanding human behavior, thought, & development

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When we start to change their behavior, it's a good idea to have a ______ understanding to how this behavior is developed

Theorhetical

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theories create a basis for ?

future research/hypothesis

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Theories are ?

dynamic, grow, change, develop

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T/F: There are no completely right theories.

TRUE

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4 theories of language development we study

1. Behaviorism
2. Cognitive
3. Nativist
4. Social interaction

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Name theory: Learning occurs when an environmental stimulus triggers a response or behavior

B.F. Skinner

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Behavioral principals are used to reward children with the goal of what in the behaviorim theory?

1. Increasing Positive behavior
2. Decreasing negative behavior

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Another name for Behaviorism Theory

Language perspectivie

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What do we mean by language perspective/Behaviorism theory?

Children imitate what they see, what they hear, and what is punished/reinforced

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Skinner said:

adults shape speech of babies by reinforcing the sounds that sound most like words or babbling

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most common behaviorism

Pavlov's dog (dog salivated everytime bell rang/given powder)

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What is it called when timing is key (how soon it happens to stimulus)

OPERANT CONDITIONING: consequence following immediately after the stimulus/behavior occurs

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Behaviorism believes that by _______ kids get reinforced

IMITATING

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When the target is hit, behavior is reinforced. When the target is not hit, the behavior is ignored/no reinforcement = what theory?

Behaviorism

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Behaviorism theory has 4 components:

1.positive reinforcement
2. negative reinforcement
3. positive punishment
4. negative punishment

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Learning occurs after behavior is either ________ or ________

reinforced or punished

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Positive means:

giving something

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Negative means:

taking something away (not necessarily bad)

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Reinforcement =

getting more of desired behavior

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punishment =

decreasing undesired behavior

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Pleasant rewards to increase behavior: do something good, get a cookie

Positive reinforcement (name pics for vocab & get a sticker)
ex 2: get 5 mins w/ favorite toy for saying right thing

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Unpleasant consequence removed to increase a behavior

Negative reinforcement: think of subtaction/taken away & reinforces because causing behavior to increase
ex: obnoxious ding when no seat belt; desired behavior is to get you to wear seatbelt but obnoxious is noise, so you wear it that noise goes away
ex 2: if kid hates flashcards; do 10 words on flashcards then get favorite toy and flashcards get taken away

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Unpleasant consequences to decrease a behavior

Positive Punishment: ex: give them red card meaning bad behavior

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Taking something desireable away to decrease behavior

Negative Punishment: ex: throwing toy off high chir then take toy away/no more

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Other key components to Behaviorism theory =

1. shaping
2. extinction
3. antecedent
4. chaining

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Occurs when individual is expected to produce closer approximations to the behavioral target

Shaping
ex: workout example- baby steps getting closer. upping the anti because you don't reinforce/break the goal into smaller steps

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ignored behavior will decrease or disappear

Extinction
ex: stop reinforcing bad behavior: ignore

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Stimulus that precedes a behavior

Antecedent: hat happened right before the bad behavior: could be working w/ kid on feeding. the antecedent could be sticking them in high chair.
-important to figure out antecednet so you can change it/work around it/change intensity of stimulus
-ask parents when it occurs if there are certain people they act around
-goal is to start to manipulate antecedent: ex: undesirable behavior is eating oreos...antecedent event is seeing oreo in kitchen ...so manipulate by moving them! you can change physical effort- put oreos way up high

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Activity that requires a number of linked steps

Chaning: complex behavior sequence broken down into smaller units so that the individual can be trained to complete a multistep task
ex: can work on one little piece eventually getting it together to complete the task-wash hands..hand over hand

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Clinical implications of behaviorism theory

drill-and-practice activities
ex: i have 1 shoe, he has ____ shoes w/ child filling in

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Limitations to Behaviorism theory

no explanation of individual complex and novel behaviors

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What theory is based on writings of Jean Piaget?

Cognitive Theory

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4 sequence of progressively more sophisticated cognitive skills (4 stages) of cognitive theory --> Piaget believes kids must go in this order w/o skipping

1. sensorimotor (birth-2)
2. Preoperational (2-7)
3. concrete operational (7-11)
4. formal operations (11-15)

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Sensorimotor Stage of cognitive theory

Birth-2: touch, crawl, motor stuff, object permanence
-kids start first words at 1 year old and piaget says that their ability to reach/grab starts at 6 months.
-not a cooincidence that first words then come 6 months...they are jus able to explore environment (piaget believes)

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Preoperational stage of cognitive theory

2-7 years old
-language learning goes bananas!
-2 years: 2 words
-7 years: maybe full construction
-start to problem solve, defining feature of what piaget refers to as egocentricity (when kids talk about themselves through things like "i'm not going to do this. then i'll do this"

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Concrete operational stage of Cognitive theory

7-11 years old
-things start to get categorized, organized thinkers!
-think logical; when you get realy good stories and they start to make sense
-things still tend to be pretty concrete in this stage

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Formal operations stage of Cognitive theory

11-15 years old
-kids become abstract thinkers
-metalinguistic & metacognitive skills (debate, argue)

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Another important piece Piaget finds is:

MEMORY: memory and time both develop as children age he believes

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Arguments against cognitive theory

1. not all children go through all of these stages (ex: kid w/ cp)
2. people can have pretty significant impairments in intellectual but can still make semantic/syntactic relationships

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3 parts of cognitive theory

1. Schema
2. Assimilation
3. Accommodation

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What is a schema?

a concept, mental category, or cognitive structure
-the basic building blocks of intelligent behavior, a way of organizing information
ex: words that are in categories
ex 2: meaning of word (dog furry 4 legged)
ex 3: actions
ex 4: abstract ideas
*as people grow & develop, their schemas become more sophisticated*

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What is Assimilation?

Evidences assimilation when a child takes new information and incorporates it into his existing schemata
ex: child's schema for dog might just be their dog but as they assimilate new info that schema grows & they ralize other dogs they see are also dogs like their own and you can put in to a category

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What is Accommodation?

When a child adjusts his/her schemata resulting from new information
-so adding new info
-ex: now your schema says ball found play thing but not necessarily dependent on color

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2 additional parts of cognitive theory

1. equilibrium
2. disequilibrium

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Using assimilation to deal w/ new information

Equilibrium
-ex: what happens when you see a new ball or dog and assimilate it-it makes sense: we not have this equilibrium w/ what we see and what we're experiencing

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When a child recognizes that 2 schemata are contradictory

Disequilibrium
ex: have schema for what duck is; wood duck, donald duck but then you see duck that looks like duck but it has a furry tail so that doesn't make sense?
*what we know doesn't fit our schema!*

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Clinical implications of Cognitive Theory

1. SLPs look for evidence of representational thought to guage child's readiness for symbolic language (language is simbollic so always looking for representational through play)
-in symbolic play stage they're ready to develop more sophisticated language
2. helps understand how children use physical exploration to increase problem-solving abilities
-ex: helping kids w/ a fish

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Limitations of Cognitive theory

1. children do not always follow linear and step by step devleopmental progression

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Noam Chomsky contributed to what theory?

NATIVIST THEORY

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Other name for Nativist Theory

Psycholinguistic Language Theory

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Preposed of Nativiest Theory means:

Children have innate ability to learn language
1. Language Acquisition Device
2. Similarities across cultures- parallel language abilities at similar developmental periods

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Language Acquisition Device (nativist)

construct idea that there must be something that exists in your brain
*children are born w/ ability to learn language & LAD contains knowledge of grammatical rules common to all languages*

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Because of ______

we can fix info/words in & that's what helps children learn languages (why it's hard for us to learn languages at this age)

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Nativist theory also believes:

Deemphasizes the contribution of child's evironment: children need only minimal language exposure to prime the LAD

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All infants are set up w/ LADs for _______ __________

Universal Grammars

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4 parts of Nativist Theory

1. surface structure
2. deep structure
3. phrase structure grammar
4. transformational grammar

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Actual sentence speaker produces

Surface structure
ex: chris loves pat vs. chris is loved by pat

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Underlying meaning of the sentence produced by the speaker

Deep structure
ex: chris loves pat vs. pat is loved by chris = same thing

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Basic structure of the sentence in regardless of language spoken

Phrase structure gramar
ex: noun phrase verb phrase; he goes, the boy goes, the boy wearing the hat goes to the store

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syntactic structures

Transformational grammar
ex: grammatical changes that transform or changes meaning of sentence
-phrase structure would be "i langued noun verb" now if you say "i don't laught" transformational grama is involved

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_______ theory is least attached to what we do as SLPs

NATIVIST

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Clinical implications of nativist theory

1. helps explain innate human ability to develop sophisticated language systems
2. has fostered an exploration of cross-cultural language

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Limitations to nativist theory

1. doesn't take into account child's environment
2. focuses on syntax learning --> limited consideration of language content and use

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What theory is based on the principle that communication interaction plays a central role in children's acquisition of language?

SOCIAL INTERACTION THEORY

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Social Interaction theory

suggests that nature & nurture are both important in language development: when it comes to language, the interactionist theorist focuses on the social

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Interactionist theorist focuses on the ______ theory

Social Interaction

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A child's natural desire to communicate is what's inborn in the _____ ______ theory

Social Interactionist
-their brains predispose them to acquiring this information & they're motivated to share with other people

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Vgotsky is most associated with _____ _______ theory

social interactionist theory

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Vygotsky believes

infants are driven to communicate, parents recognize this social interaction, & then provide language- this motivation to learn & communicate is what drives children

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Positive parental influences/interactions/communications =

when children attend more frequent interactions/back & forth enjoyment (social interaction theory)

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offset to this theory

interaction creates better language, more developed social skills so language & social skills becomes more mature-then parents language becomes more sophisticated/complex

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Certain cases where kids fail to acquire normal language skills:

these sort of bad interactions negatively impact communication & social development- these kids are at very high risk for language & social disorders

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Components of social interaction theory

1. infant directed talk/motherese
2. coordinated attention
3. parent-child communication routines

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Motherese

infant directed talk; addres babies in different ways than adults (slower, sing, exaggerated, concrete, vocabulary, things are in the present)

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Coordinated Attention

adults follow an infant's focus of attention and match their communication to the child's eye gaze (parent's naturally do,,nobody teaches that)

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Parent-child communication routines

adults structure infant play routines in systematic patterns
-ex: scripts: predictablle patterns of action
-bath time, eating time, changing way we talk with infants help them learn
-scripts: when mom puts baby in carseat "okay we're going to sit down, buckle up" over & over

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Zone of proximal development (ZPD)

the gap between what a learner has already mastered (the actual level of development and what he/she can achieve when provided w/ educational support (potential development)

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Biggest ideas to come out of the social interactionist theory

zpd: GAP BT. WHAT LEARNER CAN ALREADY DO & CAN'T DO
-what child is ready to learn next from peer, adult, whoever
*IT'S THE PEOPLE IN THE CHILD'S ENVIRONMENT THAT WILL HELP THEM WITH WHAT THEY NEED TO LEARN NEXT/THAT PURPLE BUBBLE*

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Scaffolding

the adult support that allows the child to engage in a challenging activity
-what we do to help kid move from purple to green/independent circle
-fading!

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Why is fading important?

take away help (parents can become dependent on someone else helping them)-fade scaffolding and let kid take over

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Sociocultural Principles of language development by Vygotsky

1. Mediation
2. Private Speech

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Mediation

related to scaffolding
-goal is to provide the learner with insights in order to teach the learn "how to learn"
-humans put purposeflly something between where they are & whatever it is they want to accomplish
-think of plow plowing earth and tool is plow
-communication: language mediates whats in my mind and the environment
-idea is that by using mediators we're able to modify our environment-so language is how we interact w/ our environment/other people
-when a child goes to grasp an object, the parents think they want the object-soon that behavior means give me that object/mediator

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Private speech

occurs when children speak aloud as they are engaging in play
-not talking to anyone, just talking out loud
-they believe that private speech changed w/ age and the purpose of that was to help the child accomplish the task

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Clinical implications for social interaction & sociocultural principles

1. incorporation of caregivers into intervention (ones that get child to zpd)
2. language behavior of adults is adapted to support acquisition (all about scaffolding-give them what we need)
3. increased maternal responsiveness (train parents to be really responsive w/ their prelinguistic children)
4. Zone of proximal development (most learning environments subscribe to this-classroom teachers scaffold a lot)

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During assessment we look at ZPD

criterion referenced because we're scaffolding and cue if needed

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Limitations of social interaction & sociocultural principles

1. do not explain everything about language development

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Biological foundations & environmental influences on DLD

Environmental factors influence all (biological, cognitive, and behavioral)

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environmental factors

external experiences that either increase risk of disorder or that are protective in the face of biological link

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biological factors

differences in genetic risk and neurological structure and function associated with disorder
-causal factors don't tell us everything we need to know; knowing etiology helps us know what to expect and treat child not disorder

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cognitive factors

differences in perception and information processing associated w/ disorder
-things like working memory, attention, speed of processing-influence language development
-all disorders tend to work w/ each other

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behavioral features

overt differences in behavior that characterize the disorder

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genetics/twin studies

give us big clue
monozygotic = identical dna; if disorder is genetic, expect there to be a big difference between monozygotic vs. dizogotic

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zebra finches

sing a song/learn particular songs from their parents so that's a link to human development
-manipulate a certain gene; could no longer learn a song

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Neurobiology development

begins in utero and continues through adolescence and early adults
-so it's practice doing something that makes brain more sophisticated
-brain becomes efficient by connections you do often and ones you don't use are pruning
-as you get older you have this localiztion of information processing
-see differences in both structure and function

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Brain structure in DLD

how it's built; size, symmetry differences
-not 100% of people w/ DLD have these characteristics-
-in general you see differences here

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Brain Function in DLD

Different areas activate depending on the test
-how the brain works
-particular areas tend to be related to attention and memory

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Environmental factors

SES and Bilingualism

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Socioeconomic status

1. economic
2. income

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Kids w/ language disorders are at a much higher risk in low SES and it's ________ that plays the biggest role

maternal education
-bec less rich vocab, less responsiveness, goes back to social interaction theory/poorer interaction

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Bilingualism:

does not impact language development
-no studies show

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Cognitive models of DLD

1. auditory perception
2. limited processing capacity
3. procedural deficit

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Auditory perception

kids w/ dld aren't perceiving sounds probably! Not a hearing impairment-passed screening but somehow when sounds are going into brain, sounds aren't being processed efficiently-kids have more difficulty processing if brief
-speech is fast

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Limited processing capacity

basically your working memory-information you can hold in your memory when you manipulate information
-to test working memory test true false questions "lemons are yellow" then say what was last word i said?
-*performance decreases as processing demands increase*

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Kids w/ dld have a much harder time w/ nonword repitition tasks

because syllables to make up non word, kids have hard time repeating it back-limited language that causes those results if given non word and good vocab

108

Procedural deficit

rule based memory
-kids w/ dld have difficulty w/ implicit learning- occurs at sub conscious level like walking to some place w/ somebody
-kids w/ dld have difficulty w/ procedureal memory
-things are not explicitly taught..declarative memory is explicitly taught

109

Autism is causing a pragmatic language disorder but autism and DLD are NOT _____

Comorbid

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Alot of kids w/ ASD meet the criteria for DLD

The literacy component is a global language problem

111

Language learning disabilities

literacy/decoding the sound system- have to be able to decode properly
-also talking about comprehension/understanding language

112

Maternal responsiveness includes:

saying "did that scare ou?" when baby startles when dog barks

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Private speech is associated with which theory

Social interaction (see in preschool aged)

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Altering a sentence from "I sneeze loudly" to "I don't sneeze loudly" is an example of _____

Transformational grammer: takes surface structure, turns it around, and changes the meaning

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The language acquisition device is a region of the brain near Broca's Area (T/F)

FALSE

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The theorist associated with cognitive theory is:

Piaget

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When a parent does not respond to a screaming child they are most likely using which component of behaviorism?

Extinction

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Another name for Behaviorism Theory is?

The learning Perspective

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A has concept of cow but is confused because he then sees a "cow" with crazy antlers (he is actually looking at a moose)- what is going on?

Disequlibrium: sees something that doesn't fit concept

120

Which theory promotes the notion that children have an innate drive to socialize?

Social interaction

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Using "baby talk" inhibits language development (T/F?)

FALSE

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The zone of proximal development is what a child is able to do with support (T/F)

FALSE