Flashcards in Theory of Assessment Deck (52):
Why Assessment is Important
-indicates tissues involved, status of tissues
- direct choice of appropriate treatment
-determine progress toward treatment goal
-distinguish b/w similar conditions
Describe locomotor tissues
Primary tissues that create or limit movement in the body.
It is important to remember that Assessment is not ________?
Assessment is not Diagnosis.
What are the key benefits of Assessment? (6)
1. Determine if massage treatment is appropriate
2. Determine severity of client's condition
3. Determine tissues involved and their status
4. Gauge clients pain level & symptoms
5. Build client-therapist relationship
6. Provide baseline for measuring progress
Why is clinical reasoning important?
Clinical reasoning is the ability to reflect upon & analyze gained information and make reasonable conclusions/choices.
What are the 2 primary types of injury?
1. Mechanical disruption of tissue
2. Neurological dysfunction
What are the mechanical forces that damage tissues? (5) Of those 5, what are MOST soft-tissue injuries caused from? (2)
1. Compression ⭐
2. Tension ⭐
What is the difference between a COMPRESSION and a TENSION injury?
A compression is two structures pressed together while a tension injury would be two structures being pulled together or overstretched.
A structure being twisted - a single soft tissue injury rarely is twisted to the point of injury.
A structure being bent - soft tissues are too pliable to be injured from bending
Two structures sliding past each other
I.e.) tendons slide within their synovial sheath
What is a CONCENTRIC CONTRACTION?
Two ends brought closer together. 💪🏻
What is a ECCENTRIC CONTRACTION?
🏋🏼♀️ muscle lengthens while still providing resistance.
Describe an ISOMETRIC CONTRACTION.
Muscle maintains contraction stimulus but doesn't change length. 🏋🏼♀️📏🚫
Muscle dysfunction: define HYPERTONICITY.
Tight muscles often result from postural distortion, overuse, or long periods of constant contraction.
Muscle dysfunction: describe MYOFASCIAL TRIGGER POINTS.
Hyper-irritable spots in the muscle that refer pain or other sensations to a remote area.
Muscle dysfunction: describe ATROPHY.
Disease, disuse, or injury causes lack of motor signals to the muscle resulting in loss of size and strength.
Muscle dysfunction: STRAIN
What is a strain? What are the degrees a strain can be described?
A strain is a tensile stress injury causing over stretching or tearing of muscle fibers.
1st degree = mild
2nd degree = moderate
3rd degree = severe
Muscle dysfunction: describe a CONTUSION.
Impact trauma to the muscle; may cause fiber damage and bruising
Tendon dysfunction: describe TENDINITIS / TENDINOSIS.
Chronic overuse degeneration of a tendon.
Tendon dysfunction: describe TENSYNOVITIS.
Inflammation and irritation b/w a tendon & it's surrounding synovial sheath.
Tendon dysfunction: describe AVULSION.
Extreme tensile stress injury where a tendon attachment is pulled away from the bone.
Ligament dysfunction: SPRAIN
What is a sprain? What degrees are used to describe it?
A tensile stress injury causing over stretching or tearing of ligament fibers.
1st degree = mild
2nd degree = moderate
3rd degree = severe
Joint capsule dysfunction: describe a CAPSULAR TEAR.
Tensile stress injury to the capsule that stretches or tears fibers.
Joint capsule dysfunction: describe CAPSULAR ADHESIONS.
Adhesions develop within the capsule that limit pliability and movement.
Fascia dysfunction: describe FASCIAL TEARING.
Fascia can tear along with other tissues, especially muscles in a strain injury.
Fascia dysfunction: describe FASCIAL SHORTENING.
Contractile components in fascia contribute to shortening in postural distortions.
Nerve function & dysfunction: describe NERVE DEGENERATION.
Systemic disease like MS or other factors may cause degeneration and damage to both sensory and motor nerves.
Cartilage dysfunction: what causes CARTILAGE DEGENERATION?
Compressive loads can cause chipping, cracking, or overall degeneration of hyaline or fibocartilage tissues.
Cartilage dysfunction: when does TEARING occur?
Cartilage can become torn when a tendon is pulled on the cartilage tissue.
I.e.) the glenoid labrum (cartilage tissue) can become torn when the biceps brachii tendon pull on the cartilage tissue.
Bursa: describe BURSITIS.
Fluid filled sacs that become inflamed.
What does HOPRS stand for?
ROM and Resistance testing
History includes: ______.
Subjective report from the client about his or her condition (when / how the problem occurred, symptoms, previous or related condition, how the condition had impacted life)
Objective includes: _______.
Anything the practitioner sees that gives clues to the presenting complaint.
Palpation includes: ________.
Information that is gathered from physical contact with the client form initial palpatory assessment and throughout the massage.
ROM and Resistance testing includes: ________.
The practitioner evaluates active ad passive motion and resisted isometric muscle contractions.
Special tests include: _________.
Orthopedic testing procedures that are used to evaluate tissue involvement and pathology.
What structures are related to CRAMPING, DULL, ACHING pain described?
What structures are related to SHARP and SHOOTING pain described?
What pain descriptions are associated with a FRACTURE?
SHARP, SEVERE, INTOLERABLE.
What structures are related to DULL and ACHING pain described?
LIGAMENT, JOINT CAPSULE.
What structures are related to SHARP, BRIGHT, LIGHTENING-LIKE pain described?
What structures is associated with DEEP, NAGGING, DULL pain described?
Describe ANATOMICAL POSITION and how it plays a role in Assessment.
Anatomical position is the static position of reference for visual assessment. The client stands facing forward; lower limbs are parallel and the feet are directed forward; the upper limbs are at the sides with the palms turned forward.
Describe SAGITTAL plane.
Down the middle line. Divides the body into right and left portions.
Describe the TRANSVERSE plane.
The horizontal line through the center of the body. Divide the body into superior and inferior portions.
Describe the FRONTAL plane.
The line traveling through the side of the body vertically. Divides the body into anterior and posterior portions.
What is the difference between VALGUS and VARUS?
Valgus: DISTAL end of a bony segment deviates in a LATERAL direction.
Varus: DISTAL end of a bony segment deviates MEDIALLY.
What are the 4 T's of palpation?
What tissues are considered CONTRACTILE tissues?
Tissues that produce movement.
Muscles and tendons.
What tissues are considered INERT tissues?
Tissues that move during passive movements. Ligaments, cartilage, facia, nerves.