Flashcards in Thigpen & Cleckley, 1954 (MPD) Deck (33):
What is MPD?
-Multiple Personality Disorder
-A rare disorder where a person has two or more distinct personalities or identities within an individual, with only one of them being evident at a time.
-Each personality is complete (with its own memories, behaviour and preferences).
What causes MPD?
-Traumatic situations (where there is no physical escape).
-Starts in childhood (child abuse and is more common in females than males.)
What is schizophrenia?
A mental disorder where the person has problems in perception or reality. They usually have hallucinations and starts hearing things.
What is Rorschach inkblot test? (Projective)
They were shown inkblots and were asked what they looked like. Responses are analysed to give a measure of emotional and intellectual function and integration.
What is an IQ test? (Psychometric)
IQ tests are standardised so that the average score is 100. The higher the score the more intelligent a person is.
What is drawing of human figures? (Projective)
The participant is asked to draw a person. The technique is based on the idea that the way an individual perceives and interprets his own self image will be reflected in the drawings. The drawings are believed to be created from unconscious motives. Features of the drawing such as proportions, completion, position on page, symmetry, erasures, details etc. are then interpreted.
-Inhibited people place drawing towards the right hand side of the paper.
-Impulsive people draw a figure towards the left side.
What is a memory test? (Psychometric)
Testing various different types of memory e.g. visual and verbal and the participant is given a score which indicates how good their memory is.
What is EEG?
A machine that detects tiny electrical signals coming from the brain cells and nerves which sends messages to each other (detects brain activity/waves).
What is the aim of the study?
To document the psychotherapeutic treatment of a 25 year old woman, who presented a history of severe headaches & blackouts.
What was the method?
A longitudinal case study.
Describe the participant.
-A 25 year old woman (named Eve White (EW) in the study).
-Married for 6 years.
-Has a 4 year old daughter.
-Has marriage issues and her daughter lives with her parents.
-Unhappy and misses her daughter.
How long was the study and how many hours of therapy was done?
-Over a 14-month period.
-Over 100 hours of therapy.
Describe the procedure (up to when EB first appeared).
Eve was referred to a psychiatrist due to recent blackouts and headaches she had been having. They thought it was "normal" but was puzzled by recent trios she had undertaken but had no memory of it. Several days later, they had received a letter from EW but became flirty during the last paragraph. At the next therapy she denied sending the letter but remember starting it. During this session, she showed signs of distress and asked if hearing voices was a sign of insanity. A strange look came over her face and she put her hands over her head. After a moment of silence her hands dropped and with a quick smile she said, "Hi there, Doc!" Her whole appearance changed from a woman lacking attractiveness to an attractive woman. When asked her name she said, "Oh, I'm Eve Black (EB)."
What happened after EB appeared?
It was possible to hypnotise EW in order for EB to "come out." This became regular that it was possible for EB to be called out just by the therapist saying her name.
Did EW know about EB?
No, not until she "came out" in front of the therapists.
How does EW differ from EB? (Marriage and daughter)
-EW was troubled and unhappy about her marriage but EB thought it was silly and hated her husband.
-EW had a loving relationship with her daughter but EB made fun of this and even admitted once harming the child.
Back in their childhood, how did EB cause mischief for EW?
She got EW into trouble for having walked through the woods to play with children who lived on the other side. EW's parents had forbidden her to do this as they felt it was unsafe. EB admitted doing this and only let EW "out" to receive the whipping for disobeying her parents.
What happened in the occasion where Eve bought expensive clothes?
EB had recklessly bought several expensive clothes and her husband got angry because it got him into debt. EW denied buying the clothes and even offered to take it all back. EB was responsible for the purchases.
What was the result of the IQ Tests from both personalities?
What was the result of the memory tests from both personalities?
-EW: Above IQ
-EB: On par with her IQ
What was the result from the projective tests? (Figure drawing and Ink blot test)
-EW: Rigid & not capable of dealing with her hostility. Has anxiety due to problems with roles of being a mother and wife. REPRESSION (hold back feelings).
-EB: Has a healthier profile than EW. REGRESSION (a wish to return to an earlier period of life).
Appearance wise, how does EB differ from EW?
-EB: Party girl, childishly vain, pixie like, mischievous, likes to prank people, allergic to nylon, voice-teasing, cruel, attractive etc.
-EW: Quiet, clothes- simple/conservative/neat, lack attractiveness, voice- soft and feminine etc.
Why did T&C find it difficult to proceed with therapy?
EB was unwilling to take part.
EB could wipe out EW's memory if she tried hard. Give an example (marriage).
A report from a distant relative said that Eve has had a previous marriage. While EW was working away from home for a while, EB had gone to a dance and ended up marrying a man she didn't know. She had lived with him for several months though EW did not know about this.
About eight months into therapy, what happened?
EW was doing well (headaches, blackouts and voices had gone) and she had achieved some stability but 8 months in, it all returned and even EB was experiencing it. During one session of hypnosis EW stopped talking and her head dropped. After two minutes, she looked around and in a husky voice said, "Who are you?" This was Jane. She was more mature and bold than EW but she wasn't as difficult as EB.
What did the EEG show about the three personalities?
Jane and EW had a similar rhythm but EB's was slightly faster.
What was T&Cs preferred solution?
Considering Jane was a "better" version of EW, they thought that killing the two women (EW & EB) was a good solution but they are not the ones who should decide.
What did T&C find out?
-Many hours spent= affected judgement and objectivity.
-Hard to define PERSONALITY.
-Personality changes depending on the situation.
What are the strengths of the study?
-Large amounts of rich qualitative data about patient (more than 100 hours over 14 months).
-Interviewed parents, husband to check the stories Eve was presenting during therapy.
-Psychological tests enables them to get more info about the personalities.
What were the weaknesses of the study?
-T&C got close to patient so may have affected their judgement and over looked at evidence that she could have been play acting. E.g. the way they described EW and EB- trying to make them sound as different as possible.
-Only one individual and two therapists- hard to generalise across population.
What ethical issues were raised?
-Studying three personalities make it hard to know who gave consent and who didn't.
-The two therapists did not have the right to suggest that Jane is the suitable personality for the body.
What type of data was collected?
-Mainly qualitative from interviews, therapies and projective tests.
-Quantitative: psychometric tests and EEG recordings.