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Do CD4+ Th cells bind to extracellular or intracellular?

They bind to Extracellular pathogen-specific peptide epitopes via TCR


Does CD8+ T cells bind to extracellular or intracellular

They bind to intracellular pathogen-specific peptide epitopes via TCR


What kind of structure does a TCR bind to?

It binds to a peptide antigen which will require processing from an APC in order to bind


What does a BCR bind to in terms of structure?

It will bind to a tertiary structure of a protein, carb, lipopolysach, polysaccharide

It does not require processing in order to bind


What is the point of the prevnar vaccine in terms of what it activates?

It is a polysaccharide Ag which is conjugated to a protein reactive material (CRM 197) this is important because it allows for Bcell and Tcell cooperation because the Bcell will process the protein and act as an APC to recruit Tcells and cause a larger immune response leading to increased efficacy of the shot.


What does INF-gamma cause for isotype switching?

IgM to IgG


What does IL-4 cause in terms of isotype switching

IgM to IgE


What does IL-5 cause in terms of isotype switching?

IgM to IgA


What is affinity maturation?

It’s when you have isotype switching which leads to production of specific antibodies that are able to bind to the pathogen with higher affinity compared to the ones that were originally created


What is CAR t-cell treatment

It’s when you pull a patients T-cells out of their peripheral blood and you engineer the T-cell or CAR t-cell to recognize the surface tumor antigens so it can kill them

They CAR T cell has increased signaled so it causes a higher response to the cancer


What is the role of IL-2 in activation of T-cells?

It will drive the proliferation and differentiation of activated T-cells


What do Th1 cells secrete?


Which stimulates phagocytosis and killing of microbes by macrophages, inflammation

IgM to IgG

Also IL-2


What do Th2 cells secrete ?

IL-4 causes IgM to IgE, big in allergic rxn and eosinophil killing of helminth

IL-5 which changes IgM to IgA



What do Th17 cells produce?


Involved in inflammation and autoimmune diseases MS, IBD


What does the complement system consists of?

Serum proteins and cell surface proteins that interact to generate products for elimination of microbes


What part of immunity is our complement system apart of

Innate and humoral immunity

People who lack C3 will have a high chance of getting a ton of infections


Which two pathways of the complement system are innate immunity and why?

It’s the Alternative pathway and the lectin pathway

the reason is because it does not require and antibody in order to be started

Alternative = activated by the microbe
Lectin = activate by presence of Mannose

The classical is humoral because you need to have an IgG or IgM bound to the microbe in order to start


What are the steps of T-cell activation?

Step 1: binding of peptide Ag with MHC to a TCR

Step 2: Binding of costimulitory factors to increase T-cell proliferation and differentiation

CD28 binds to B7 (CD80/CD86)

CD40L bind to CD40

Also CD3 which is part of TCR which increase stimulating effects

This all increase the amount of NFAT, NFkb and AP1 which are transcription factors to make more and different types of T-cells


What are the central tolerance types of immune tolerance

Happens in the bone marrow for Bcells and happens in the thymus for Tcells

Deletion = apoptosis and just kill the cell

Receptor editing = in bcells to change what it does

Development of Tregs = release inhibitory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-Beta to stop the function of Tcells



What are the types of Peripheral tolerance in immological tolerance?

Clinal anergy = do not have function responses (would be like not activating CD28 to bind with B7 so it results in a lower response of Tcell)

Deletion = apoptosis

Suppression - using Tregs to release inhibitory cytokines (IL-10, TGF-Beta) to suppress the action of the lymphocytes



What type of lymphocytes is most susceptible to tolerance

Immature lymphocytes


What is negative selection when it comes to immune tolerance?

When a lymphocytes has a high affinity for self antigen is will be negatively selected and killed off

They may also become Tregs (CD4+,CD25+), which will release suppressive cytokines (IL-10, TGF-beta) in the peripheral


What is me ant by positive selection of lymphocytes

It means it has a low affinity for self Ag meaning it will be saved by TCR receptor and allowed to mature and enter the peripheral system


What is the role of Orencia (abatacept)?

it mimics CTLA-4 which is going to cause the blocking of B7 (CD80/86) from binding to CD28 which means there will not be a reaction of the Tcell

It’s an immunosuppressive drug in the use for RA


Where are Tregs created

Primarily in the thymus

The IL-10 and TGF-B suppresses activation and effector functions of sel-reactive and pathogenic lymphocytes in periphery


***if we didn’t have these we would have a lot of autoimmune diseases


What happens to B lymphocytes when it comes to peripheral tolerance

When a B-cell reacts to a self antigen it doesn’t cause the activation of Th cells (because it cant package the self antigen into a MCH) this leads to the Bcell to be very ineffective and unresponsive (anergic) and will die by apoptosis


What are the main ways we have central tolerance in Bcells?

B cells that target Self antigen in the bone marrow have to fates

1: receptor editing where we change the antigen receptor so that it is no longer self reactive

2: dies by apoptosis with negative selection (deletion)


How can we use immune tolerance to help with allergies?

We inject the pt with the allergies or have them eat them (peanuts) this will cause the antigen to seem more like a self antigen and will cause our T and B cells to become desensitized to them and no longer react

We have to start with low amounts and slowly increase the amount we give them


How does autoimmune diseases happen?

The self-Ag is not expressed in the thymus or the concentration is way to low. This will allow Tcells that are auto reactive to escape the thymus where they will then start to react with our bodies Self-Ag and cause autoimmune diseases

Type 1 diabetes, SLE (systemic lupus, Type III hypersensitive rxn)


What is a live attenuated vaccine?

It’s one that is a mutated form of the bacteria. It does not cause infection but it can replicate and will give a much greater immune response

Can’t not be given to prego, immune compromised pts, or people on steroids more than 2 weeks