Flashcards in Thirteen Colonies- Unit 1 Review Deck (88):
What was Roanoke?
First English Attempt to settle in America, It was NOT permanent, and the settlers disappeared
A charter is....?
A document that gives permission to settle a region
ALSO, The Virginia Company of London received a charter from King James to settle Virginia
What is a Joint Stock Company?
JS Companies got people to make an investment and hoped to pay them back & more in return.
•The Virginia Company was a JS Company
•The Virginia Company sent men and supplies to North America, to present day Virginia, to look for gold and silver in 1607
Jamestown was founded in...?
1607, also it was the first permanent English Settlement. It was also built on a peninsula.
What were the PROBLEMS with Jamestown?
Leadership problems: Nobody enforced the laws or lead the colonists
And the colonists didn't know how to survive..
They lived in a swampy location, Mosquitos carried diseases.
Who saved Jamestown? How did he?
John Smith, took the control of the colony and got it back on track
(Made the gentlemen work)
Who Governed Jamestown?
The CHARTER was given to the Virginia Company. They said that the King Of England had all authority in Jamestown, Virginia.
House of Burgesses??
-first representative government in the New World
-made laws and decisions for the colonists
What were the New England Colonies??
Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Connecticut, Rhode Island
Which group settled in Massachusetts and why?
Pilgrims (Plymouth) and Puritans
(Massachusetts Bay) settled (religious freedom)
What was the Mayflower Compact?
An agreement signed in 1620, By the pilgrims in Plymouth, MA
Also a SOCIAL CONTRACT that established a self governing colony based on rule by people (Majority Rule)
(Who was the founder... etc.)
Thomas Hooker= Founder
Hooker= "The Father of American Democracy" believing in the principle of equality for all mankind. He favored vote for men regardless of religion.
What did Thomas Hooker believe?
He believed the government is based on the rights of individual citizens
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut...
1st written constitution in America (written by hooker)
It described the organization of representative government in detail
-Allowed more men to vote (non church members
-Made the CT Government more democratic
(Who found it, etc..)
Roger Williams= founder
-he dissented from the puritans in Massachusetts. He supported the separation of church and state
What is religious toleration?
To practice your religion freely
What did Anne Hutchinson do??
-questioned the religious authority of the colony's ministers
-claimed God spoke directly to her
-was exiled from Massachusetts (booted out) and went to Rhode Island
What were the Geographic Characteristics? (Of New England)
-cold climate (long winters)
What was the New England industry?
Fishing, shipbuilding (lumber), fur trading, small businesses (mills)
Geographic farming caused...
The colonists to only grow enough for their family with little left over to sell (subsistence farming)
England was the...
SEED!! THEY WERE THE START... THE MAIN CHARACTERS (Growth of Trade)
What was one of England's main reasons for founding their American Colonies?
England wanted to be self sufficient, so the Parliament passed the _______________ ____ in ____
(Fill in the blanks)
Navigation Acts in 1651
The Navigation Acts...
1.) Placed Duties (taxes) on many goods
2.) Said most goods could only be sold to England
England claimed... That the Navigation Acts were...
Good for the colonies
Many colonists _________. They felt they should be able to sell goods to whomever they wanted.
Basically, the colonists disagreed to the Navigations Act.
The demand for goods in the colonies was small compared to foreign countries. So this led to...
An unfavorable balance of trade within the colonies.
Despite colonial complaints, trade restrictions continued into the ____.
In 1733, England passed the __________ ___.
Molasses Act, which placed duties (taxes) on sugar, molasses, and rum.
Colonists began to bring these goods into their colony illegally... And that was called...
The trade route between the American colonies, Great Britain, and the West Indies was a triangle and became known as the Triangle Trade. So,
Slaves to the colonies, Sugar to New England, Then Rum to England and Africa. Then it repeats.
The trade route was between...
The American colonies, Great Britain and West Indies.
The Middle Passage..
Was a leg of the Triangular trade that had a big effect on human life.
New England traded ____ for slaves, and brought them back to sell in the American Colonies.
The Slave Trade brought about __ million Africans across the Atlantic Ocean.
The Middle Passage= Deadly..
(That's basically all you need to know from this card)
The Middle Passage journey lasted until ___ months, with Africans chained by their necks and legs.
The slaves lived in the space between the...
Upper and lower decks of the ship, crammed in a very small space in order to get many slaves on board as possible.
The Quakers were the first group to protest against.....
The slave trade continued in all the colonies, particularly the ______ colonies.
Slave labor was important in the southern colonies because ______ and ____ production required many workers.
Tobacco and Rice production
The slave trade also brought profits to...
Shipbuilders in New England who benefitted from building the new slave ships.
What were the middle colonies?
Hint: Four of them
New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware
New York was founded for...
New York was 1st settled by the _____ also called...
By the Dutch, also called New Netherlands
New York had excellent...
Harbor, fur trading, cash crops (wheat) and a good center for trade
England took over New York without firing a shot...
(Make sure you know that)
The ___ of ____ allowed people to elect a legislature (government)
The Duke Of York
(Make sure you know this too)
New York had a ____ population..
New Jersey was founded for ______ reasons.
To attract settlers, they offered large tracts of ____, and...
Land, also promised freedom of religion, trial by jury, and a Representative assembly
New Jersey produced large amounts of...
Pennsylvania was founded for...
Pennsylvania was founded by..
William Penn for the Quakers
Penn also granted colonists the right to __________ representatives to the legislative assembly & gave PA a...
Elect Representatives, and a written constitution which limited the power of the government
Industry for the middle colonies was..
Lumbering, mining, small scale manufacturing
•Cash Crops- Wheat & Grains (bread basket)
The Geographic Characters included.. (For middle colonies)
•Better farmland and warmer climate than New England (mild climate)
Delaware used to...
Used to be the southern part of Pennsylvania.
Quakers believed that,
Everyone deserves equal rights (including women and African Americans)
Frames of Government which implemented democratic principles
European countries began to trade with East Asia (China and Japan) for luxury goods such as...
Spices, silk, and jewels.
The causes for exploration were...
They were trying to gain a safer sea trade route to East Asia.
God- (religious) explorers went to spread Christianity to native Americans
Gold- (economic) explorers went to America to try to get rich
Glory- (political) to spread Catholicism
A nation's power based on it's wealth
-Which nation could get the most gold & riches
England looked for..
•Trade, Lumber, and other profitable RAW materials
France looked for...
-Trade posts (fur trade)
Spain looked for...
-Looking for golds and riches
What are the Southern Colonies?
Maryland was founded for..
Economic and religious reasons.
-Place for Catholics
-Planted tobacco, corn, wheat
-As plantations increased, so did need for slaves
Act of Toleration?
(Who presented it, what did it do, etc.)
-Lord Baltimore (Cecilius Calvert) presented it to protect Catholics
-It made restricting the religious rights of Christians a crime
-One of the first laws supported religious tolerance in the English Colonies
Virginia was founded for...
- First English Colony- 1607
What was Virginia's cash crop?
More of them than slaves, HOWEVER, the demand for workers was greater than the supply of people willing to work as indentured servants under the harsh conditions
In 1600's colonists grew _____ with the conditions in Virginia
The poor colonists believed members of Virginia assembly were _____ their concerns
Many colonists began ______ on land that belonged to Native Americans
In 1676 a group of a former indentured servants led by Nathaniel Bacon attacked some peaceful Native Americans
(Make sure you know this)
When the governor tried to stop bacon, they...
Attacked and burned Jamestown
Bacon controlled much of the colony until he died from fever. The rebellion ended and 23 of the rebels were..
After the rebellion it was hard to make ______ with the Native Americans
Peace.. Hard to make peace.
North Carolina was found for..
-They grew tobacco & sold tar & timber
-The Carolina's used to be one colony
-Founded by a group of proprietors
South Carolina was also founded for..
-fertile farmland and a good harbor
-rice was the leading cash crop
-indigo- cash crop
-by 1708 more than half of the people living there were SLAVES
Georgia was founded for... (IMPORTANT.. MUST KNOW)
-James Oglethorpe created it for debaters and former prisoners to start over
-Georgia could protect the other colonies from Spanish attack
-Last ENGLISH colony
Geographical characteristics for The Southern Colonies?
-fertile soil and warm climate
-large farms (plantations)
Economy for Southern Colonies..?
-Agriculture (farming)-cash crops: tobacco, rice, indigo
Plantations for the Southern Colonies?
Large farms that used slave labor (usually used 20 or more slaves)
-usually located near a river for shipping