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Flashcards in Thorax Deck (35)
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1

Which bones make up the pectoral girdle?

Clavicle
Scapula

2

Which are the "true" ribs and how do they connect to eh anterior rib cage?

Ribs 1-7, connect via their own cartilage

3

Which are the "false" ribs and how do they connect to the anterior rib cage?

8-10, connect via the cartilage of rib above (7)

4

Which are the floating ribs?

10-12

5

Antero-lateral rib cage; refers to anterior/inferior border of the "connected" rib cage

Costal Margin

6

What joints are found in the thoracic cavity?

Intervertebral Joints (2 kinds)

Costovertebral joints

7

Compare the two kinds of intervertebral joints

1. Cartilaginous joints between vertebral bodies. Held in place by longitudinal ligaments and intervertebral discs

2. Synovial joints, at the junction of the lamina and pedicle

8

Name the two longest longitudinal ligaments and were they are located

Anterior longitudinal ligament
*located anterior surface of vertebral bodies

Posterior longitudinal ligament
*located on posterior-most surface of the vertebral bodies

9

How do the ribs articulate with the vertebrae

At two places:

1. Rib tubercle articulates with spinous process
*this is also where the rib # and vertebra # match up

2. Rib head articulates at the vertebral bodies, between two.

10

How do the ribs articulate anteriorly, with the manubrium and sternal body

Via costochondral joints (between rib and costal cartilage)

11

Where might one find a "gliding synovial joint"?

Joints of the false ribs

12

From what artery do most of the posterior intercostal arteries branch?

Aorta

13

Where might one find the Costal Groove - and what's in there?

Inferior / inTERIOR portion of a rib

Vein
Artery (posterior intercostal artery)
Nerve (intervostal neurovascular bundle)

14

What is the primary blood source for the anterior intercostal arteries?

Internal Thoracic Artery (IMA)

15

Where do thoracic wall veins drain?

Posteriorly - eventual to Azygous Venous System

16

Describe drainage path from the R and L intercostal veins

R intercostal > Azygous Vein > Superior Vena Cava

L intercostal > Hemiazygous Veins > Azygous Vein > Superior Vena Cava

17

What medical conditions can cause enlargement of the azygous system?

Anything that results in poor venous return

1. Obstructed Superior Vena Cava
2. Right heart failure
3. Liver problems (cirrhosis, portal hypertension)

18

What facilitates the movement of the thoracic wall on inspiration?

Decreased Intra-abdominal volume on inspiration - facilitated by the diaphragm

19

What facilitates expiration?

"Recoil" of the diaphragm and the compressed abdominal contents

20

Which muscles, other than Scalenes and SCM can act as accessory muscles of respiration?

1. Serratus anterior
2. Pectoralis minor

21

Where are the origins of the diaphragm?

At its circumferential lateral aspects:

Xyphoid
Costal Cartilages of ribs 5-10
Vertebral bodies L1-L3

22

Where does the diaphragm insert?

on its Central Tendon - anterior-middle of the dome

23

3 holes/hiatuses of the diaphragm

Vena Cava Foramen
Esophageal Hiatus
Aortic Hiatus

24

_____ fibers extend downwards and forwards and _____ fibers extend downwards and backwards

External intercostal

Internal intercostal

25

Where does the phrenic nerve originate?

Cervical Plexus, C3-C5

Travels downwards between lung and heart

26

The phrenic nerve can be located in the neck, traveling just anterior to ____

the anterior scalene muscle

27

What kind of nerve fibers does the phrenic nerve carry?

Sensory
Somatic Motor
Sympathetic

28

Where might referred pain from the diaphragm manifest?

Anywhere C3-C5 enervates

Lower neck, shoulders, lateral aspects of arms

29

Where, in relation to the vertebra, do T1-T12 spinal nerves emerge?

Just INFERIOR to the vertebra with the same number

30

What kind of fibers do spinal nerves carry?

Sensory
Motor
Sympathetic

31

Which of the thoracic rami eventually runs within the costal groove?

Ventral Ramus!

*(MOTOR)*

32

Which roots, dorsal or ventral, are sensory? Which are motor?

Dorsal are Sensory

Ventral are Motor

33

What makes up the sympathetic trunk/

Ganglia (cell bodies) and axons

34

Preganglionic sympathetic fibers - white or gray?

WHITE

35

Postganglionic sympathetic fibers - white or gray?

GRAY