Flashcards in Thorax Deck (35)
Which bones make up the pectoral girdle?
Which are the "true" ribs and how do they connect to eh anterior rib cage?
Ribs 1-7, connect via their own cartilage
Which are the "false" ribs and how do they connect to the anterior rib cage?
8-10, connect via the cartilage of rib above (7)
Which are the floating ribs?
Antero-lateral rib cage; refers to anterior/inferior border of the "connected" rib cage
What joints are found in the thoracic cavity?
Intervertebral Joints (2 kinds)
Compare the two kinds of intervertebral joints
1. Cartilaginous joints between vertebral bodies. Held in place by longitudinal ligaments and intervertebral discs
2. Synovial joints, at the junction of the lamina and pedicle
Name the two longest longitudinal ligaments and were they are located
Anterior longitudinal ligament
*located anterior surface of vertebral bodies
Posterior longitudinal ligament
*located on posterior-most surface of the vertebral bodies
How do the ribs articulate with the vertebrae
At two places:
1. Rib tubercle articulates with spinous process
*this is also where the rib # and vertebra # match up
2. Rib head articulates at the vertebral bodies, between two.
How do the ribs articulate anteriorly, with the manubrium and sternal body
Via costochondral joints (between rib and costal cartilage)
Where might one find a "gliding synovial joint"?
Joints of the false ribs
From what artery do most of the posterior intercostal arteries branch?
Where might one find the Costal Groove - and what's in there?
Inferior / inTERIOR portion of a rib
Artery (posterior intercostal artery)
Nerve (intervostal neurovascular bundle)
What is the primary blood source for the anterior intercostal arteries?
Internal Thoracic Artery (IMA)
Where do thoracic wall veins drain?
Posteriorly - eventual to Azygous Venous System
Describe drainage path from the R and L intercostal veins
R intercostal > Azygous Vein > Superior Vena Cava
L intercostal > Hemiazygous Veins > Azygous Vein > Superior Vena Cava
What medical conditions can cause enlargement of the azygous system?
Anything that results in poor venous return
1. Obstructed Superior Vena Cava
2. Right heart failure
3. Liver problems (cirrhosis, portal hypertension)
What facilitates the movement of the thoracic wall on inspiration?
Decreased Intra-abdominal volume on inspiration - facilitated by the diaphragm
What facilitates expiration?
"Recoil" of the diaphragm and the compressed abdominal contents
Which muscles, other than Scalenes and SCM can act as accessory muscles of respiration?
1. Serratus anterior
2. Pectoralis minor
Where are the origins of the diaphragm?
At its circumferential lateral aspects:
Costal Cartilages of ribs 5-10
Vertebral bodies L1-L3
Where does the diaphragm insert?
on its Central Tendon - anterior-middle of the dome
3 holes/hiatuses of the diaphragm
Vena Cava Foramen
_____ fibers extend downwards and forwards and _____ fibers extend downwards and backwards
Where does the phrenic nerve originate?
Cervical Plexus, C3-C5
Travels downwards between lung and heart
The phrenic nerve can be located in the neck, traveling just anterior to ____
the anterior scalene muscle
What kind of nerve fibers does the phrenic nerve carry?
Where might referred pain from the diaphragm manifest?
Anywhere C3-C5 enervates
Lower neck, shoulders, lateral aspects of arms
Where, in relation to the vertebra, do T1-T12 spinal nerves emerge?
Just INFERIOR to the vertebra with the same number
What kind of fibers do spinal nerves carry?
Which of the thoracic rami eventually runs within the costal groove?
Which roots, dorsal or ventral, are sensory? Which are motor?
Dorsal are Sensory
Ventral are Motor
What makes up the sympathetic trunk/
Ganglia (cell bodies) and axons
Preganglionic sympathetic fibers - white or gray?