Thyroid/parathyroid pathology 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Thyroid/parathyroid pathology 2 Deck (11):
1

What is the common pathology affecting the parathyroid glands ?

  • Hyperparathyroidism 
  • Hypoparathyroidism 
  • Hyperplasia/adenoma/carcinoma

2

What are the symptoms of hyperparathyroidism ?

  • General tirdeness 
  • Muscle weakness 

3

What are some of the complications which can develop due to hyperparathyroidism ?

Bone disease:

  • Pain, fracture, osteoporosis or osteitis fibrosa cystica

Nephrolithiasis:

  • Renal stones and complications

GI complications:

  • Constipation, nausea, peptic ulcer disease, pancreatitis, gall stones

CNS:

  • Depression, lethargy, seizures

Neuro-muscular:

  • Weakness and fatigue

CVS:

  • Calcification of aortic and mitral valves

4

What are the main cause of primary hyperparathyroidism ?

Parathyroid adenoma 

Carcinoma in only 2-3% of cases 

 

5

How does secondary hyperparathyroidism occur ?

  1. Persisten low serum calcium 
  2. Results in increased stimulation of parathyroid hormone release 

6

What is secondary hyperparathyroidism seen in ?

  • Renal failure most commonly 
  • May also be due to malabsorption syndromes with Vit D deficiency 

7

What is tertiary hyperparathyroidism ?

  • When a patient with secondary hyperparathyroidism becomes hypercalcaemic. 
  • Thought to be due to some cells becoming autonomous in the parathyroid i.e. insensitive to the controlling effect of Ca2+ and an inappropriate high level of PTH secreted as a result 

8

How does hypoparathyroidism occur ?

  • Due to deficiency of PTH 
  • This causes hypocalcaemia and hyperphosphataemia 

Very rare 

9

What are some of the signs of hypoparathyroidism ?

  • Increased muscular tone 
  • Muscle spasms 

10

What are some of the complications of hypoparathyroidism ?

  • Cataracts 
  • Psychological changes 
  • Seizures 
  • Prolong QT interval in ECG

11

What are some of the causes of hypoparathyroidism ?

  • Usually after removal of the glands 
  • Rarely congenital absence – Di George syndrome