Flashcards in TICKLE CLEP PICKLE PICKLE Deck (43)
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Which of these perspectives would explain family relationships in terms of the subjective meanings and everyday interpretations that people give to their lives?

a. Postmodern theory

b. Functionalist theory

c. Feminist theory

d. Interactionist theory

e. Developmental theory

d. Interactionist theory


All of the following are characteristics of persons most likely to divorce, EXCEPT

a. marriage at an early age.

b. the presence of children at the beginning of the marriage.

c. parents who are divorced or have unhappy marriages.

d. a high school education or less.

e. membership in the upper class.

e. membership in the upper class.


The most common form of kinship tracing in industrial societies is

a. matrilineal.

b. bilateral.

c. patrilineal.

d. unilineal.

e. matrilocal.

b. bilateral.


What is the term is used to describe a situation in which several companies overwhelmingly control an industry?

a. Monopoly

b. Oligopoly

c. Shared monopoly

d. Conglomerate

e. Dictatorship

b. Oligopoly


All of the following are characteristics of preindustrial economies, EXCEPT

a. in hunting and gathering societies the production units are small, and most goods are produced by family members.

b. in horticultural and pastoral societies, the economy becomes distinct from family life.

c. in preindustrial economies, most workers engage in primary sector production.

d. the distribution process becomes less complex with the accumulation of a surplus.

e. the division of labor is organized according to age and gender.

d. the distribution process becomes less complex with the accumulation of a surplus.


Power is widely dispersed across many competing interest groups in what kind of political system?

a. Pluralist

b. Elite

c. Distributive

d. Combined

e. Rational-legal

a. Pluralist


The pluralist model assumes that political power is held by

many different groups, who negotiate and compromise with one another.


Sociologists point out that the working poor

a. account for less than 5 percent of the U.S. population.

b. have financial resources to draw from if their condition deteriorates.

c. are never actually below the poverty line.

d. live from paycheck to paycheck.

e. do not have the attitude and motivation to better themselves.

d. live from paycheck to paycheck.


Which of the following sociological perspectives would suggest that schools are agencies for reproducing the capitalist class system and for perpetuating inequality in society?

a. Functionalist theory

b. Strain theory

c. Conflict theory

d. Postmodern theory

e. Differential association theory

c. Conflict theory


Strain Theory is

social structure.social pressure may make citizens want to commit crime


According to sociologists, a major source of poverty is

a. people's unwillingness to work.

b. governmental programs, such as welfare, that have kept families impoverished for generations.

c. the low wages paid for many jobs.

d. people's desire for immediate gratification, and overuse of credit cards.

e. an insufficient supply of wealth in society as a whole.

c. the low wages paid for many jobs.


Prejudice and discrimination

a. may or may not occur together.

b. are mutually exclusive.

c. always occur together.

d. are based on gender issues only.

e. are hate crimes.

a. may or may not occur together.


Which of the following is defined as a hierarchical system of social organization in which cultural, political, and economic structures are controlled by women?

a. Systematic female discrimination

b. Gender bureaucracy

c. Matriarchy

d. Institutionalized gender based discrimination

e. Matrilocal residence

c. Matriarchy


Which of the following statements regarding gender socialization by parents is TRUE?

a. Girls' clothing is more functional than boys' clothing.

b. When girl babies cry, parents respond to them more quickly.

c. Parents are more likely to talk and sing to male infants.

d. Male infants receive more gentle treatment than female infants.

e. Children's toys no longer reflect parents' gender role expectations.

b. When girl babies cry, parents respond to them more quickly.


Middle adulthood refers to people between the ages of

a. 30 and 50.

b. 40 and 55.

c. 40 and 65.

d. 25 and 70.

e. 55 and 70.

c. 40 and 65.


Social devaluation is most likely to be experienced by

a. infants and children.

b. adolescents.

c. young adults.

d. middle adults.

e. older adults.

e. older adults.


Which of the following refers to people's disengaging from social roles that have been central to their self-identity?

a. Role exit

b. Role conflict

c. Role expectation

d. Role performance

e. Role strain

a. Role exit


Which of the following approaches suggests that migration may be fostered by groups—such as humanitarian aid organizations relocating refugees or smugglers bringing people into a country illegally—whose actions may produce a larger stream of migrants than would otherwise be the case?

a. Institutional approach

b. New households economics of migration approach

c. Network approach

d. Split-labor-market approach

e. Marxist approach

a. Institutional approach


Which of the following refers to the process by which some societies have moved from high birth and death rates to relatively low birth and death rates as a result of technological development?

a. Zero population growth

b. Demographic transition

c. Population lag

d. Cultural lag

e. Diffusion of innovations

b. Demographic transition


The movement of people out of a geographic area to take up residence elsewhere is referred to as

a. distribution.

b. migration.

c. immigration.

d. emigration.

e. mobilization.

d. emigration.


There are two types of migration. Emmigration means
immagration means

Emigration refers to movement out of an area, whereas immigration refers to movement into an area.


According to the concentric zone model of urban growth, Zone 1

a. contains wholesale light manufacturing.

b. is a ring of small cities and towns populated by people who commute.

c. contains working-class residences and shops and ethnic enclaves.

d. is the central business district and cultural center.

e. is a suburban shopping district.

d. is the central business district and cultural center.


Which theoretical approach examines the experience of urban life?

a. Functionalist theory

b. Interactionist theory

c. Conflict theory

d. Developmental theory

e. Labeling theory

b. Interactionist theory


Interactionist theory studies how

meaning is created in face-to-face interactions between individuals.


Which of the following refers to institutions such as state bureaucracies and capital investment firms that are involved in the urban development process?

a. Agency

b. Green revolution

c. Structure

d. Independent revolution

e. Development

c. Structure


Recent studies have found that for most African-American suburban residents, race is less important in determining one's neighbors than

a. educational level.

b. class.

c. age.

d. status.

e. number of children.

b. class.


What is one of the central characteristics of a normative organization?

a. It is divided by class.

b. All its members are paid a salary.

c. Its goal is resocialization of members through incarceration.

d. All of its members are female.

e. It is voluntary.

e. It is voluntary.


Leadership in secondary groups involves

a. an informal hierarchy.

b. a friendly orientation.

c. a clearly defined hierarchy or chain of command.

d. a strong personality.

e. giving each member of the group equal authority.

c. a clearly defined hierarchy or chain of command.


Approximately what percentage of criminal convictions is obtained through plea bargaining rather than trial?

a. 10

b. 30

c. 50

d. 90

e. 100

d. 90


According to the value-added model, the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King that led to urban riots in the months following would be considered a

a. mobilization for action.

b. conductiveness issue.

c. structural strain.

d. precipitating factor.

e. relative deprivation.

d. precipitating factor.