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Flashcards in TIme Orientiation Deck (48):

Hall,Fong and Sansone, 2015 what was the hypothesis of study 1?

Future orientation would predict greater health behaviour tendencies in all models and effects stronger for males than females.


Hall, Fong, and Sansone, 2015 what was the hypothesis for study 2?

Those with a more future-oriented time perspective would have lower BMI and this association would be expected by diet and exercise.


Orbell & Haggar, 2006 Overall what did the results of their studies suggest with respect to time perspective?

That framing health behaviour messages in terms of their short-term benefits may be an effective way of motivating health behaviour changes in individuals with a present-oriented time perspective, in part because it fosters positive attitudes towards the behaviour.


What is time orientation?

The tendency to be influenced by one temporal frame over others when making a decision.


What happens if you favour one temporal frame over the other?

The preferred temporal frame acts as a cognitive bias. With repeated use it becomes a trait like tendency that motivates behaviour (Zimbardo & Boyd, 1999)


What were William James principles of Psychology (1980/1981)

The self over time
There's a different self everyday


What is the term for integration of temporally partitioned selves?



Why is time orientation important for health?

Lak of exercise and bad diet are leading contributors to the obesity epidemic world wide (WHO, 2015)
Obesity is precursor for many diseases.


What type of behaviour is health beahviours? (Wagner and Heatherton, 2015)



State three behaviours that link time orientation to health...

1. Preventative Health Behaviours
2. Health Promoting Behaviours
3. Health risky behaviours


Name five research methods

Randomized controlled trial


What type of study was Hall, Fang and Sansone?

Cross-sectional study


What did Hall, Fong and Sansone studies suggest with respect to time perspective?

People with a more future-oriented time perspective engaged in health behavioural practices (e.g diet and exercise) and these practices explained in part the lower BMI of future oriented individual.


What type of study was Orbell & Haggar, 2006?

Experimental design


Temporal Framing and the Decision to take part in Type 2 Diabetes screening (Orbell & Haggar, 2006)

High - CFC (Future- Orientation) more sensitive to distant consequence that are both positive and negative.
Low CFC (Opposite)


Sirois et al (2003) How is procrastination associated with physical health?

Procrastination is linked to physical health through a direct pathway (higher stress) and an indirect pathway (treatment delay)


Sirois et al (2003) How is time orientation implicated in health outcomes associated with procrastination?

Because procrastination is associated with prioritising short-term mood regulation over long-term consequences of behaviour, procrastinators will be more susceptible to giving in to unhealthy temptations that interfere with health promoting behaviours and thus have negative health consequences for the future self. The stress created by this more present -oriented view can also have negative health consequences.


Define procrastination

derived from latin 'of tomorrow' self -regulatory problem involving the unnecessary and voluntary delay of important intended tasks despite the recognition that this delay may have negative consequences. Inhibition of efficient behaviour to achieve results of maximum potential (Sirous & Psychl, 2015)


A temporally bound behaviour that has consequences not only for the present self but also the ...

future self (Procrastination) - Sirois & Psychl, 2015


When does procrastination occur?

Tasks that are boring or frustrating.


What did Tile & Brallavsky,2000 describe procrastination as?

'Giving in to feel good'


Explain Procrastination and the Temporally Extended Self

Past self makes intention to act and doesn't, puts onus on future self then present self has to deal with it but put onus on future self. Future self holds big burden, cycle repeats itself. An example of poor inter temporal choices and chronic procrastination (Sirois & Psychl, 2013)


Choosing future orientation may have proved beneficial therefore becomes a...

cognitive bias.


If you had a bad experience with one temporal frame encourages you to...

alter temporal frame.


If you receive immediate gratification of present orientation and counted on something in future and it didn't materialize...

may never develop cognitive bias towards future, because of the cycle their in.


Future self can feel close to us or far from us, what is the term for this?

Future self -continuity and venn diagrams


In the venn diagram study what was done

Asked p's to rate their closeness to future self on Venn diagram, don't think about future self they feel distant from future self.


What did Sirois (2003) do?

Gave Lay's (1986) p's general population scale and wellness behaviour inventory. Found stress plays a role in health behaviour and effects time orientation. More stressed you are the less likely you are to go to the gym.


What is the stress orientation hypothesis?

(Sirois, 2014) - stress initiated cognitive shifts orient focus away from distal and towards more immediate concerns (fight or flight response activation of amygdala) narrows focus and cognition induces changes in the brain.


What effect does stress have on immune system?

Suppress the immune system, get sick during/after exams.


What are some of the consequences of procrastination?

Delay in making medical appointments (Sirois et al,2003)
Practice fewer health promoting and protective behaviours (Sirois et al, 2003)
Higher stress (Sirois et al, 2003)
Greater number of health problems ( Sirois et al, 2003)


Hall, Fong & Cheng (2012) What outcome was tie perspective associated with in the diabetes patients, and what variables explained this association?

Future time perspective was associated with better weight management behaviours in the form of greater physical activity and eating less fatty foods at the 6 month follow-up. Although 3 potential mediators were tested to explain this association on intention was found to be a significant mediator. Specifically, stronger intentions to engage in physical activity explained the link between FTP and greater physical activity. and weaker intentions to eat fatty foods explained the link between FTP and eating less fatty foods.


Sirois (2015) Name 3 factors that theory suggests influence how someone will rate their future health.

Theory on the factors that contribute to people's perceptions and rating of their health (Self-rated health SRH) include personality and individual differences, cultural conceptions of health, expectations of health based on age, gender, etc. current medical status, physical symptoms, genetics and functional status, among others.


What are the risk factors of chronic illness?



Name some of the chronic diseases (persist for 6 months) obesity causes

Type 2 Diabetes


What impact does living with chronic illnesses have?

Impact self -perceptions, behaviours and well-being for better or worse.


Define Temporal Self-Appraisal Theory

Tendency to derogate distant past selves and praise recent past selves ( Wilson & Ross, 2001) Student rated beginning of term past selves as farther in past perceived themselves more negatively then then those who were prompted to view beginning of term selves as closer in the past.


Psychological distance =

Perceived distance


Temporal landmarks (Peetz & Wilson, 2012) found

Same that before landmark when described as long ago perceived themselves as better in the present because they've had more time to change over when the landmark isn't described as that long ago.


Sirois did a study on people with chronic illness and induced temporal distance what was found?

There was no significant results found.


When sirois introduced temporal landmarks...

there was a significant difference when six months was farther there felt they had made more progress than when six months was closer in the past in concordance with temporal self-appraisal theory. Measured through self-rated health.


What are contextual factors?

Cultural conceptions of health: Physical symptoms, behaviour and genetics. functional status
Individual differences in personality, health experiences and expectations: age, previous health status., expected health trajectory and personality
Cultural norms: (SRH) rating of health giving options presented


What are the contextual factors of Future SRH?

Cultural conceptions of health
Individual differences in personality, health experiences and expectations


SRH and Personality what was found?

Optimism levels explained why Agreeableness and Neuroticism were linked to FSRH, optimism had better management of chronic condition do what you can to get better.


Time Perspective and management of Type 2 Diabetes what was the study for this?

Longitudinal design- those newly diagnosed with diabetes were examined on behavioural intentions. Found that higher future orientation meant that they ate less fatty food.


Is procrastination a vulnerability factor for hypertension and CVD?

Both stress and poor health behaviours have led to the development of many chronic diseases. Procrastination is linked with low conscientiousness and agreeableness and in turn poor cardiovascular health. Poor coping may increase vulnerability, not coping well with stress effect experience of living with the disease.


What does the extension of the procrastination health model include?

Trait procrastination
Health Behaviours
Maladaptive coping


What was found in the study of the procrastination health model?

Every one point higher on the trait procrastination scale chances of being in the CVD group increase by 60%.
Stronger association with maladaptive coping behaviour in p's with HT/CVD than the healthy controls
Indirect effects on stress through maladaptive coping were significantly larger for the HT/CVD sample.