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Flashcards in topic 1 (cell biology) Deck (35)
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1

eukaryotic cells

cells with a nucleus

2

prokaryotic cells

cells without a nucleus

3

animal cell

ribosomes
nucleus
cell membrane
mitochondria
cytoplasm

4

plant cell

*everything in an animal cell plus:
chloroplasts
permanent vacuole
cell wall

5

job of nucleus?

controls all the activities in the cell

6

job of ribosomes?

these are where proteins are made in the cell

7

job of cell mem?

controls what goes in and out of cells

8

job of mitochondria ?

where respiration takes place

9

job of chloroplast ?

where photosynthesis takes place

10

job of permanent vacuole ?

contains cell sap and helps to keep plant turgid

11

job of cell wall ?

gives strength to the cell

12

bacteria cell

contains
DNA
plasmids
(+cytoplasm,cell mem and cell wall)

13

DNA

replacement nucleus and hold the genetic material

14

plasmids

small rings of DNA

15

magnification

image size /real size

16

light microscope

uses light and lenses to produce an image (e.g nuclei)

17

electron microscope

uses electrons to form an image , it also has a higher magnification and resolution then a light microscope and lets us see much smaller things

18

chromosomes

body cells contain two of each chromosome and this is found in the nucleus. humans have 23 pairs

19

mitosis

a type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each having the same number and kind of chromosomes

20

stages of mitosis

Interphase The cell spends most of its life in this phase. The DNA in chromosomes copies itself ready for mitosis.
Prophase The DNA in chromosomes and their copies condenses to become more visible. The membrane around the nucleus disappears.
Metaphase Chromosomes and their copies line up in the middle of the cell.
Anaphase Chromosomes and their copies are pulled to different ends of the cell.
Telophase New membranes form around the chromosomes at each end of the cell.
Cytokinesis The cell membrane pinches in and eventually divides into two daughter cells.

21

when does mitosis take place?

mitosis takes place when an organism repairs itself or during asexual reproduction

22

diffusion

movement of molecules from an area of a high conc to an area of a low conc (e.g oxygen out and carbon dioxide in plants )

23

factors affecting rate of diffusion

difference in conc (conc gradient)
temp
SA

24

osmosis

is the diffusion of water from a concentrated solution to a dilute solution through a partially permeable membrane

25

active transport

the movement of particles from an area of low conc to an area of high conc and this process does require energy

26

what is binary fission

the process by which bacteria divides into two every 20 mins

number of bacteria=2^(rounds of division)

27

differentiation / specialisation

cells change to become specialised for there job
-animal cells loose this ability at an early stage
-plant cells never loose this ability

28

examples of specialised cells

sperm cells = reproduction
nerve cells= rapid signalling
muscle cells= contraction
root hair cells= water and minerals
phloem and xylem =transporting substances

29

muscle cells

muscle cells contain protein fibers to help them contract

30

nerve cells

nerve cell axon carries electrical signals ,they are long to cover move distance and have dendrites to connect to other nerve cells