Topic 1.2 - Cell Biology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 1.2 - Cell Biology Deck (24)
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1

What are prokaryotic cells?

Prokaryotes are organisms whose cells lack a nucleus ('pro' = before ; 'karyon' = nucleus)

2

What kingdom do prokaryotic cells belong to?

Monera and have been further classified into two distinct domains

3

What 2 domains are prokaryotic cells classified as?

- Archaebacteria – found in extreme environments like high temperatures, salt concentrations or pH (i.e. extremophiles)

- Eubacteria – traditional bacteria including most known pathogenic forms (e.g. E. coli, S. aureus, etc.)

4

9 main features in prokaryotic cells:

Cytoplasm
Nucleoid
Plasmids
Ribosomes
Cell membrane
Cell wall
Slime capsule
Flagella
Pili

5

What is binary fission?

A form of asexual reproduction used by prokaryotic cells

6

Process of binary fission:

- The circular DNA is copied in response to a replication signal
- The two DNA loops attach to the membrane
- The membrane elongates and pinches off (cytokinesis), forming two cells

7

How do prokaryotic cells divide?

Through binary fission

8

What are eukaryotic cells?

Organisms whose cells contain a nucleus (‘eu’ = good / true ; ‘karyon’ = nucleus)

9

Which has a more complex structure, prokaryote or eukaryote?

Eukaryotic cells

10

Where were eukaryotic cells believed to evolve from?

From prokaryotic cells (via endosymbiosis)

11

What are Eukaryotic cells are compartmentalized by?

Membrane-bound structures (organelles) that perform specific roles

12

Eukaryotes can be divided into four distinct kingdoms:

Protista
Fungi
Plantae
Animalia

13

3 universal organelles:

Ribosomes
Cytoskeleton
Plasma membrane

14

9 Eukaryotic Organelles:

Nucleus
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Golgi Apparatus
Mitochondrion
Peroxisome
Centrosome
Ribosomes
Cytoskeleton
Plasma membrane

15

3 organelles only in plant cells:

Chloroplast
Vacuole
Cell Wall

16

Organelle only found in plant cells:

Lysosome

17

6 Key features of a prokaryotic cell:

Pili
Flagella
Ribosomes
Cell wall
Shape
Size

18

6 Key features in an animal cell:

Nucleus
Mitochondria
Golgi apparatus
Endoplasmic reticulum
Ribosomes
Cytosol

19

4 Key features of a plant cell:

Vacuole
Chloroplasts
Cell wall
Shape

20

All bacteria share features common to every prokaryotic cell, what are they?

- They lack a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles
- They have circular DNA that is naked (not bound to protein)
- They have smaller ribosomes (70S)

21

Different types of bacteria can be distinguished according to a number of characteristics, what are they?

Shape
Cell wall composition
Gaseous requirements
Nutritional patterns

22

Prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells differ in a number of key features, including:

- DNA (composition and structure)
- Organelles (types present and relative sizes)
- Reproduction (mode differs according to chromosome structure)
- Average size (exceptions may exist)

23

DNA in prokaryotes and eukaryotes:

P: DNA is naked. DNA is circular. Usually no introns
E: DNA bound to protein. DNA is linear. Usually has introns.

24

Animal cells and plant cells are both types of eukaryotic cells and hence share many common features, including:

- DNA stored within a nucleus
- Larger ribosomes (80S in size)
- A variety of membrane-bound organelles (e.g. mitochondria, ER, golgi apparatus)