Topic 2 - Cells and Control Flashcards Preview

Edexcel GCSE Biology > Topic 2 - Cells and Control > Flashcards

Flashcards in Topic 2 - Cells and Control Deck (43):
1

In human cells, what is a chromosome?

a structure found in nuclei, containing a DNA molecule

2

What type of cell division forms two identical daughter cells?

mitosis

3

In which stage of the cell cycle are the chromosomes duplicated?

interphase

4

In which stage of the cell cycle, at the end of mitosis, does the one cell divide into two?

cytokinesis

5

What term describes a cell that has two sets of chromosomes?

diploid

6

Where are plant meristems found?

tips of plant shoots and roots [also just inside bark of trees]

7

What happens in a plant meristem?

Cells divide rapidly by mitosis as the plant grows
unspecialised/stem cells

8

What happens during cell differentiation?

Cells develop special features that help them carry out a particular function.

9

Why is cell differentiation important to plants and animals?

Specialised cells are more effective at carrying out different functions in the body.

10

A root hair cell is a specialised cell. What is its function?

to absorb water and dissolved mineral salts from the soil

11

How is a root hair cell specialised to carry out its function?

It has a long extension into the soil that increases the surface area for absorption

12

Explain how one specialisation of a xylem vessel helps it carry out its function.

any one from: thickened wall to prevent collapse of tube/withstand pressure of water; no cell cytoplasm and lost cell walls to form long tubes through which water flows up the plant; small holes in thick cell wall so water can pass into and out of the vessel from surrounding cells

13

Name one feature, other than mass, that could be measured to show growth in a plant.

any suitable measure that will show change over time, such as: height, tree girth, leaf area, number of leaves

14

Name the type of cell division that cells use to make identical copies of themselves.

mitosis

15

What type of cell has the ability to differentiate into specialised cells?

stem cell

16

In what organ system would you find nerve cells?

the nervous system

17

Are nerve cells diploid or haploid?

diploid

18

What part of a nerve cell contains chromosomes?

nucleus

19

What part of a nerve cell makes proteins?

ribosomes

20

Nerve cells require a lot of energy. What cell structure would you expect them to have a lot of?

mitochondria

21

What is a nerve cell specialised to do?

carry electrical signals/impulses

22

List your senses.

touch, hearing, sight, taste, smell, balance, temperature and plenty of others

23

State the name of one organ in the nervous system.

brain, spinal cord or nerves or a named sense organ

24

Triple Only- What type of cells is the brain mainly made up of?

neurones, nerve cells

25

Triple Only-What part of the brain controls our senses and emotions?

cerebral cortex)

26

Triple Only-State one thing that the cerebellum controls.

balance, posture or fine motor movements)

27

Triple Only-Where is the medulla oblongata in relation to the spinal cord?


at the top of the spinal cord

28

Triple Only-What part of the brain controls the rate of the heart?

medulla oblongata

29

Triple Only-What part of the brain stores our memories?

cerebral cortex

30

Triple Only-Apart from bundles of neurones, what else does a nerve contain?

blood vessels

31

Triple Only-What name is given to an electrical signal transmitted by a neurone?

impulse

32

Triple Only-What part of the brain controls the rate of breathing?

medulla oblongata

33

Triple Only-Which cerebral hemisphere receives information from the right eye?

left

34

What type of cells detect stimuli?

receptor cells

35

In which sense organ would you find receptor cells that detect light waves?

eye

36

What are the electrical signals used in the nervous system called?

impulse

37

List, in order, the organs that an impulse goes through from the hand to the brain.

nerve(s), spinal cord

38

What are the two long ‘arms’ of a sensory neurone called?

dendron and axon

39

List, in order, the parts of a sensory neurone that an impulse goes through.

dendrite, dendron, axon, axon terminal

40

Why are sensory neurones so long?

to carry impulses quickly over long distances

41

What is the name of the fatty sheath that surrounds dendrons and axons?

myelin sheath

42

What does the myelin sheath do?

speeds up transmission of impulses, insulates neurones from each other

43

Where in the eye are receptor cells for light found?

retina