Flashcards in Topic 3 - Bioarchaeology Deck (52)
why is Otzi so important
Otzi is so important as he is the earliest mummy foundation Europe. He was mummified by cold conditions with skin, hair, eyes, tissue, internal organs and intestinal contents preserved giving us unique insight into the prehistoric past
what does radiocarbon dating state?
radiocarbon dating states that he lived c. 3350-3100 BCE during the copper which is consistent with objects found by him such as a copper axe with a yew handle, secured with hide strips that wear patterns suggest was used for felling trees
what was he found with?
he was found with a range of everyday objects for his survival such as a kit for sharpening tools, kit for fire starting and moss used as toilet paper or food wrapping, all hung from a leather but around his waist
what weapons were found?
we also found a bow made from yew-smeared with fat to maintain spring, a quiver with 12 arrow shafts with 2 arrows ready for shooting and a 2m long bast string and a dagger.
what was the dagger like?
the dagger had a triangular chert blade and ash wood handle. the scabbard was woven from tree bast and could be fastened to a belt with a leather eyelet. evidence also tells us that it was broken in his lifetime.
what was age at death? how do we know this?
Age at death based on dental wear and bone historiography was 45 or older.
what does dentition show?
dentition is heavily abraded indicating a consumption of dried meat or cereals ground in quernstones. there was also a function abrasion of the left frontal upper jaw.
in what health was Otzi when he died?
Otzi was in poor health when he died, inflicted with osteoarthritis, arteriosclerosis and frost bite with little subcutaneous fatty tissue. he also had 3 sets of Beau-Reilslines on the finger nail recovered indicating serious illness 8, 13 and 16 weeks before death.
what else did Otzi suffer from?
he also suffered from intestinal whipworm infestation, human fleas recovered from his clothing trichuriasis eggs recovered from his colon that caused weight loss and anemia.
what did his genome being sequenced reveal?
in 2012, his genome was sequenced revealing that he had brown hair, brown eyes, O blood type, was lactose intolerant, was genetically predisposed to arteriosclerosis and had lyme's disease.
how many tattoos did Otzi have? what do they correspond with?
Otzi has 61 of groups of groups of lines or crosses located in areas where joint wear is evident and that correspond to acupuncture points suggesting medical knowledge.
what do CT scans reveal?
CT scans revealed his stomach was full of food so he ate a large meal before death of bread, ibex meat and red deer meat. chemical analysis of his bones indicate that plants were a dietary staple.
what did he wear?
he wore a woven grass cloak which was water repellent, a bear skin hat, a knee length coat of sheep/chamois skin, canid/goat hide leggings and shoes made up of cattle hide soles and red deer skin uppers with inner netting to maintain shape and holes for laces.
where did Otzi spend his childhood?
Analysis of his Sr, Pb and O values indicate that he spent his childhood in S.Tyrol and further evidence of pollen and mosses found with the remains points to Otzi having lived died within 70km of the find site.
what did Otzi's equipment include that could indicate time of death?
Otzi's equipment included 2 birch bark vessels - one used to carry embers wrapped in maple leaves that grow from Jun-Sept. Hop-hornbeam pollen grains were found in his intestines that bloom in June indicating that he must have died in early summer.
what is the first theory of how Otzi died?
the first theory of how he died was that he was a shepherd or travelling between settlements and died of exposure.
what does the second theory state?
the second theory states that he was shot from behind by an arrow after a CT scan in 2001. the arrow penetrated the left shoulder blade and blood loss was significant, he probably died within minutes.
from what injuries could he have died?
there was also evidence of brain injury indicative of blunt force trauma , a stab wound wound to the right chest and severe bruising. the hand wounds were sustained in the days before his death suggestion it was long drawn out.
why is accurately estimating age at death important? how is this not really possible?
Accurate age at death estimation is crucial for understanding past societies but it's not possible to assign a true age of death to skeletal remains, at best we can try and link biological age (based on skeletal development and degeneration) with chronological age.
how does skeletal development and deterioration vary?
both skeletal development and degeneration varies between population and individuals. the degree of accuracies varies according to age, the older the individual the less accurate the assessment.
what are the methods for assessing the age of death within a juvenile?
there are 3 methods of assessing age at death in juveniles, dental development, degree of ossification and skeletal dimensions
what caused dental wear? what can this tell us?
course, tough, diets caused teeth to wear down and the amount of wear increases with age. wear is usually more regular on molars
what have studies shown about the use of analysis of dental wear?
studies have shown this to be a fairy accurate method of comparing the age of individuals within a population but care must be taken when comparing individuals of different cultural or racial groups
what is the difference between male and females carried out by?
differences between males and females are assessed by metrical analysis and comparison of morphological characteristics. sex differences in the skeleton reflects hormonal differences between males and females normally only carried out on adult skeletons
what are some of the differences between males and females?
some of the differences between male and female remains include the pelvis, skull, shoulder joint, hip joint knee joint and general size
what is the differences within the skull?
the male skull is generally larger, heavier and less rounded. the supraorbital ridges are more prominent, the upper orbital more rounded, muscular ridges more marked, external occipital proturences more developed mastoid processes more developed in males
what are the 3 basic principles in any estimation of stature?
in any estimation of stature 3 basic principles apply, 1. in a single individual, height increases until adulthood is reached and decreases in senility, 2. within a population considerable variation will be found, 3. the average for females is smaller than males whatever the group (females are said to be around 92% of males)
what can limit diagnosis?
not all diseases leave traces on the skeleton and incomplete skeletons can limit diagnosis. there is also a limitation on how the skeleton reacts to disease processes such as abnormality of shape or size, bone loss, abnormal bone formation, fractures and dislocation, porosity of bone and thickening of bone.
what is detectable on the skeleton?
the classes of disease detectable on the skeleton are dental disease, trauma, joint disease, metabolic disease, infectious disease, neoplastic disease, congenital disease and non-specific skeletal stress