Topic 3 - Why did The cold war end ? Flashcards Preview

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1967 Outer space treaty

Stopped the arms race spreading to outer space as it pledged that no nuclear weapons would be placed in space by either superpower


1968 Nuclear Non-Proliferation treaty

Agreed that neither superpower would supply nuclear weapons to other states or help states to develop nuclear weapons - stopping superpower conflict from engulfing other areas of the world


Salt 1 Treaty

The strategic arms limitation treaty - 1972, imposed limits on the nuclear capability of USA and Russia

- no further production of strategic ballistic (short range) missiles
- submarines carrying nuclear weapons would only be allowed once existing stocks became obsolete
- ABM (anti ballistic missile treaty) meant each side only got 2 ABM systems each

Intended to be temporary, leading to a more comprehensive treaty


Why was SALT 1 so significant ?

It was the first agreement between the superpowers that successfully limited the number of nuclear weapons they had. Detente created an environment in which both sides could co-operate


When was SALT 2 signed ?

It was signed in June 1979 by Carter and Brezhnev BUT never became law as US senate refused to ratify it after Afghan invasion


Why were SALT 2 negotiations difficult ?

- The West German government was worried that further arms reductions would leave their territory undefended

- Right-wing American Congressmen thought that detente had gone too far and were reluctant to agree to further compromises with the Soviet Union


Apollo Soyuz mission

A joint space mission between USA and USSR in 1975 - Astronauts exchanged gifts and shook hands demonstrating detente as they were co-operating


The Helsinki agreements

Made terms that applied to everyone (35 countries from east and west)
Security: All country boundaries were accepted, disputes settled peacefully
Co-operation; industrial, economic, scientific, educational
Human rights: freedom of speech, movement, religion, information


Kabul Revolution

April 1978
Afghan revolution overthrew the capitalist government as the new government was determined to "build socialism in Afghanistan"
Taraki, the new communist president became an ally of USSR

Very unstable government, Muslims fought it and a civil war broke out between the government and Islamic fighters - Taraki was forced to accept Amin as prime minister - soon became bitter rivals


When was Taraki assassinated ?

October 1979 by supporters of Amin - Amin then claimed presidency


Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan

December 1979
Soviet troops invaded Afghanistan and killed Amin. They declared Karmal (loyal to the soviets) president


Why did Brezhnev order the invasion of Afghanistan ?

- He did not trust Amin as Soviet secret police believed him to be an American spy
- Feared muslim groups were planning to take control of country
- opportunity to extended his power in oil-rich Middle East
- Concerned that Afghanistan would become an Islamic state (not communist) as result of civil war
- Karmal (afghan communist) argued he had enough popular support to form a new government but need soviet help to defeat Amin's military
- Belived that the US would tolerate the invasion as they had done in Czech


Carter Doctrine

President Jimmy Carter was appalled at the Soviet invasion and so devised the Carter doctrine.

Reaction to Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
He said the USA would not allow the USSR to get control over the oil-rich Middle East
- USA supported afghan rebels (Muslims) in an alliance with China and Israel
- imposed economic sanctions on Russia
- ended all diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union


Key events signifying the end of detente

-Carter Doctrine
-The end of Salt 2
-Carter increased US defence spending money by 5% and ordered the US military to come up with plans for surviving and winning a nuclear war with the Soviet Union - more hardline approach to relations
-The Olympic Boycott (US boycott of 1980 Moscow games along with 60 other countries, in response USSR and 14 communist countries boycotted 1984 LA games)


When did Ronald Reagan replace Jimmy Carter as president ?

January 20th 19811


What is meant by the "Second Cold War" ?

A term used to describe the period between 1979-1985 in which superpower relations met a new low


Reagan's attitude toward the Soviet Union

Reagan had no intentions of fixing relations and believed it was time for America to start fighting again - he wanted to win the cold war

He rejected the idea of peaceful co-existence with the USSR

Very hard-line

"limited nuclear war in Europe"


Why was America not convinced Reagan was a suitable president ?

He was originally an actor and was portrayed as a modern day cowboy who knew nothing of world affairs and totally unqualified


Reagan's Evil Empire speech

March 1983
Reagan argued that the Cold War was a fight between good and evil, and that America fought with gods blessing.
Stated that America had moral duty to invest in new nuclear weapons to defend liberty from the 'evil' USSR


What was SDI ?

Strategic defence imitative - often called Star Wars
Reagan proposed a 'nuclear umbrella' in space that would destroy and stop any Soviet nuclear bombs from reaching America using laser equipped satellites

During détente the superpowers had been evenly matched and worked together to limit the growth of nuclear stock piles. SDI was a complete break from this policy and broke the Outer Space Treaty of 1967 signed during detente.


Soviet response to SDI

Soviet leaders knew they could not compete - they did not have enough money and were behind in computer technology - Th USSR could no longer compete in the arms race


Problems that SDI brought up

Broke the outer space treaty (1967)
Turned the space race into an arms race
Made the Soviet Union feel threatened - worsened relations


Gorbachevs vision for communism

- wanted to rebuild the economy
- make communism popular again
- allow more freedom


When was Gorbachev leader of USSR ?

He was the last leader, from 1985 till its collapse in 1991


Gorbachev's early relationship with America

Following his first meeting with Reagan in 1985, he called Reagan a "class enemy" "primitive" "caveman" and "mentally retarded"


What tested Gorbachev's relationship with the West in April 1986 ?

The Chernobyl crisis (nuclear reactor exploded)

Chernobyl became a symbol of the crisis in thE Soviet Union


What was Glasnost ?

Meaning openness
Gorbachev wanted the press censorship to be relaxed
E.g it became possible to buy western newspapers and sensational articles were released on Stalin


What was perestroika ?

Meaning restructuring
Economic reforms designed to make the Soviet Union more efficient


Gorbachev and the west

Gorbachev's new thinking made him extremely popular in the west, forcing Reagan to rethink his approach to the Soviet Union (especially as he got on with Gorbachev)


The summits that ended the cold war

Geneva - November 1985
Reykjavik - October 1986
Washington - 1987