Flashcards in Topic 3.1: Thermal Concepts Deck (11):
o TEMPERATURE: A measurement of how hot an object is. A scalar quantity. If two objects have the same temperature, there will be no net heat flow between them.
What does temperature determine in terms of thermal energy transfer?
• 3.1.1: State that temperature determines the direction of thermal energy transfer between two objects
• 3.1.2: State the relation between the Kelvin and Celsius scales of temperature
o Temperature in Kelvin = Temperature in Celsius + 273
Define absolute zero
o ABSOLUTE ZERO: The lowest temperature possible. -273.16°C or zero kelvin (0K). Kelvin is the absolute thermodynamic temperature scale.
Define internal energy
• 3.1.3: State that the internal energy of a substance is the total potential energy and random kinetic energy of the molecules of the substance
Where does the kinetic energy arise from?
o The kinetic energy of the molecules arises from their random/translational/rotational motion
Where does the potential energy arise from?
o The potential energy of the molecules arises from the forces between the molecules
• 3.1.4: Explain and distinguish between the macroscopic concepts of temperature, internal energy and thermal energy (heat)
o Thermal energy refers to the non-mechanical transfer of energy between a system and its surroundings
o MOLE: The amount of a substance that contains the same number of particles as there are atoms in 12g of carbon-12.
Define molar mass
o MOLAR MASS: The mass of 1 mole of a substance. eg molar mass of water is 18g