TOPIC 3B - MORE EXCHANGE AND TRANSPORT SYSTEMS Flashcards Preview

BIOLOGY A LEVEL > TOPIC 3B - MORE EXCHANGE AND TRANSPORT SYSTEMS > Flashcards

Flashcards in TOPIC 3B - MORE EXCHANGE AND TRANSPORT SYSTEMS Deck (44)
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1
Q

What are carbohydrates broken down by?

A

Amylase and membrane-bound disaccharides.

see page 66 in the revision guide

2
Q

What are lipids broken down by?

A

Lipase with the help of bile salts.

see page 66 in the revision guide

3
Q

What 2 monosaccharides is maltose made up of?

A

Broken down by maltase to form 2x glucose

4
Q

What 2 monosaccharides is sucrose made up of?

A

Broken down by sucrase to form glucose and fructose

5
Q

What 2 monosaccharides is lactose made up of?

A

Broken down by lactase to form glucose and galactose

6
Q

What do endopeptidases do?

A

They act to hydrolyse peptide bonds within a protein.

see page 67 in the revision guide

7
Q

What do exopeptidase do?

A

They act to hydrolyse peptide bonds at the ends of protein molecules.

(see page 67 in the revision guide)

8
Q

How are monosaccharides absorbed across the ileum epithelium into the blood stream?

A

(see page 67 in the revision guide)

9
Q

How are monoglycerides and fatty acids absorbed across the ileum epithelium into the blood stream?

A

(see page 67 in the revision guide)

10
Q

How are amino acids absorbed across the ileum epithelium into the blood stream?

A

(see page 67 in the revision guide)

11
Q

How do haemoglobin carry oxygen?

A

(see page 68 in the revision guide)

12
Q

Write the reversible reaction for the formation of oxyhaemoglobin.

A

(see page 68 in the revision guide)

13
Q

What happens to the saturation of haemoglobin when there’s a high partial pressure of oxygen?

A

Oxygen loads onto haemoglobin to form oxyhemoglobin where there’s a high pO2. Oxyhaemoglobin unloads its oxygen where there’s a lower pO2.

(see page 68 in the revision guide)

14
Q

Read bottom of page 68 in the revision guide.

A

Understand it?

15
Q

How does the carbon dioxide concentration affect oxygen unloading?

A

(see page 69 in the revision guide)

16
Q

Read bottom of page 69 in the revision guide.

A

Understand it?

17
Q

Draw a labelled diagram of the heart.

A

(see page 72 in the revision guide)

18
Q

Describe the characteristics of arteries.

A

(see page 70 in the revision guide)

19
Q

Describe the characteristics of veins.

A

(see page 70 in the revision guide)

20
Q

Describe the characteristics of capillaries.

A

(see page 71 in the revision guide)

21
Q

How is tissue fluid formed?

A

(see page 71 in the revision guide)

22
Q

What does the left ventricle of the heart do?

A

(see page 72 in the revision guide)

23
Q

What do the atrioventricular valves in the heart do?

A

(see page 72 in the revision guide)

24
Q

What do the semi-lunar valves in the heart do?

A

(see page 72 in the revision guide)

25
Q

What do the cords attached to the atrioventricular valves and the ventricles do?

A

(see page 72 in the revision guide)

26
Q

Why do the ventricles have thicker walls than the atria?

A

(see page 72 in the revision guide)

27
Q

Describe the three stages of the cardiac cycle of blood pumping round the body.

A

(see page 73 in the revision guide)

28
Q

Read page 74 in the revision guide.

A

Understand it?

29
Q

Describe an atheroma formation and what can it lead to?

A

(see page 75 in the revision guide)

30
Q

What is an aneurysm?

A

A balloon-like swelling of the artery.

see page 75 in the revision guide

31
Q

What is thrombosis?

A

A formation of a blood clot.

see page 75 in the revision guide

32
Q

What are three risk factors of cardiovascular disease?

A
  • High blood cholesterol and poor diet.
  • Cigarette smoking.
  • High blood pressure.

(see page 76 in the revision guide)

33
Q

Read page 77 in the revision guide.

A

Understand it?

34
Q

How is water moved up a plant?

A

(see page 78 in the revision guide)

35
Q

What is transpiration and when does it occur?

A

(see page 78 in the revision guide)

36
Q

What four main factors affect transpiration rate?

A
  • Light
  • Temperature
  • Humidity
  • Wind

(see page 78 in the revision guide)

37
Q

How can a photometer be used to estimate transpiration rate?

A

(see page 79 in the revision guide)

38
Q

Describe how you would dissect a plant to view the xylem or phloem in plant tissue.

A

(see page 79 in the revision guide)

39
Q

How is phloem tissue adapted for transporting solutes?

A

(see page 80 in the revision guide)

40
Q

What is translocation?

A

(see page 80 in the revision guide)

41
Q

What is the mass flow hypothesis?

A

(see page 80 in the revision guide)

42
Q

What is some supporting evidence for mass flow?

A

(see page 81 in the revision guide)

43
Q

What are some objections for mass flow?

A

(see page 81 in the revision guide)

44
Q

How can the translocation of solutes be demonstrated experimentally?

A

(see page 81 in the revision guide)