Topic 4 - 1930s Roosevelt's New Deal (Knowledge) Flashcards Preview

Paper 1D: America 1920-1973 CORE CONTENT > Topic 4 - 1930s Roosevelt's New Deal (Knowledge) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Topic 4 - 1930s Roosevelt's New Deal (Knowledge) Deck (44):
1

What were the aims of Roosevelt’s ‘New Deal?

1. Get Americans back to work.
2. Protect savings and property
3. Provide relief for sick, old and unemployed.
4. Get U.S. industry and agriculture back on its feet.

2

What were Roosevelt’s advisers known as?

The ‘Brains Trust’

3

During Roosevelt’s first hundred days in office, how many proposals did he send to Congress (all approved)?

15

4

What was the first issue Roosevelt tackled?

The banking crisis – loss of confidence in banks

5

When did Roosevelt order all of the banks to close?

The day after his inauguration (5 March 1933)

6

What was the name of the policy to tackle the banking crisis?

Emergency Banking Act

7

What happened while the banks were closed for four days?

The banks were checked by government officials.

8

What happened to the banks on 9 March 1933?

5,000 trustworthy banks were opened, supported by government money if necessary

9

What was the name of the agency set up to help the urgent needs of the poor?

The Federal Emergency Relief Administration

10

How much did FERA spend on helping the poor?

$500 million

11

What did FERA provide for the poor?

Soup kitchens, blankets, employment schemes and nursery schools

12

What did the CCC stand for?

Civilian Conservation Corps

13

What did the CCC do?

Provided work for unemployed young men on environmental projects

14

What kind of work did the CCC do?

Strengthening river banks, fighting forest fires, controlling mosquitoes to prevent malaria etc

15

How long could men sign on to the CCC for?

6 months, but could renew if still had no job

16

How many people did the CCC provide jobs for?

2.5 million

17

What was a major criticism of the CCC?

It paid very low wages

18

What agency was set up to help farmers?

The Agricultural Adjustment Administration

19

How did the AAA help farmers?

1. Set quotas to reduce farm production and force prices upwards
2. Government destroyed surplus produce and gave farmers compensation for lost production
3. Helped farmers modernise and use methods that would protect the soil
4. Helped some farmers pay their mortgages

20

What problem did the AAA create?

Farm modernisation put more farm workers out of work

21

Which two organisations were set up by the National Industrial Recovery Act?

Public Works Administration
National Recovery Administration

22

What did the PWA do?

Used government money to build schools, roads, dams, bridges and airports

23

What did the NRA do?

Improved working conditions in industry e.g. outlawing child labour, set fair wages.
Voluntary – firms could choose to join

24

How did businesses show they had signed up to the NRA?

They could use the blue eagle as a symbol of presidential approval

25

How many employers joined the NRA?

Over 2 million

26

How did the Home Owners Loan Corporation help Americans?

Took over the mortgages of middle-income Americans who were struggling to pay mortgages, so banks didn’t repossess their homes

27

How many Americans were helped by the Home Owners Loan Corporation?

HOLC took over 1 million mortgages at better interest rates than banks
1933-36: 20% of homeowners ‘rescued’ by HOLC – 80% successfully repaid HOLC mortgages

28

Why was the Tennessee Valley Authority created?

Tennessee Valley flooded during wet season, and farming land turned into a dust bowl during dry season. TVA set up to combat these problems.

29

What was the main work of the TVA?

Built dams on the Tennessee River:
a. made it possible to irrigate (water) dried-out land
b. provided electricity
c. provided jobs

30

What were Roosevelt’s ‘fireside chats’?

Radio broadcasts where Roosevelt would explain to the nation what he was doing and why

31

When and how often were Roosevelt’s ‘fireside chats’?

Every Sunday

32

How many Americans tuned into Roosevelt’s ‘fireside chats’?

60 million

33

Why did some Democrats criticise the New Deal?

They claimed it wasn’t doing enough

34

Who was the main politician who argued the New Deal wasn’t doing enough?

Huey Long

35

What ideas did Huey Long put forward?

‘Share our Wealth’ scheme:
1. Limit personal wealth to $3 million.
2. Share taxes equally.

36

Why did the Republicans, and most businesses, criticise the New Deal?

1. They argued it was doing / interfering too much in business.
2. Cost too much – resented paying higher taxes
3. Said Roosevelt was taking America on the path to socialism

37

What aspects of the economy did the New Deal interfere with?

1. Created jobs
2. Fixed prices
3. Controlled levels of production
4. Dictated working conditions

38

What is the role of the Supreme Court?

Judge whether laws follow the American Constitution

39

Who was the Supreme Court dominated by?

Republican judges

40

Which New Deal laws were judged to be unconstitutional?

National Recovery Administration
Agricultural Adjustment Act

41

Why were the NRA and AAA declared unconstitutional?

They extended the role of the federal (central) government too far, taking away the power of individual states

42

How did Roosevelt respond to opposition from the Supreme Court?

‘Court-packing’ - he threatened to appoint 6 extra judges who agreed with his policies, in order to outvote the Republican judges

43

Why was Roosevelt forced to back down and withdraw his plan to ‘pack’ the Supreme Court?

Made him look like a dictator – he was trying to interfere in the work of the judges

44

How did the Supreme Court react to Roosevelt’s threat to a ‘pack’ the court?

They accepted later measures of the New Deal