Flashcards in Topic 4 - 1930s Roosevelt's New Deal (Knowledge) Deck (44):
What were the aims of Roosevelt’s ‘New Deal?
1. Get Americans back to work.
2. Protect savings and property
3. Provide relief for sick, old and unemployed.
4. Get U.S. industry and agriculture back on its feet.
What were Roosevelt’s advisers known as?
The ‘Brains Trust’
During Roosevelt’s first hundred days in office, how many proposals did he send to Congress (all approved)?
What was the first issue Roosevelt tackled?
The banking crisis – loss of confidence in banks
When did Roosevelt order all of the banks to close?
The day after his inauguration (5 March 1933)
What was the name of the policy to tackle the banking crisis?
Emergency Banking Act
What happened while the banks were closed for four days?
The banks were checked by government officials.
What happened to the banks on 9 March 1933?
5,000 trustworthy banks were opened, supported by government money if necessary
What was the name of the agency set up to help the urgent needs of the poor?
The Federal Emergency Relief Administration
How much did FERA spend on helping the poor?
What did FERA provide for the poor?
Soup kitchens, blankets, employment schemes and nursery schools
What did the CCC stand for?
Civilian Conservation Corps
What did the CCC do?
Provided work for unemployed young men on environmental projects
What kind of work did the CCC do?
Strengthening river banks, fighting forest fires, controlling mosquitoes to prevent malaria etc
How long could men sign on to the CCC for?
6 months, but could renew if still had no job
How many people did the CCC provide jobs for?
What was a major criticism of the CCC?
It paid very low wages
What agency was set up to help farmers?
The Agricultural Adjustment Administration
How did the AAA help farmers?
1. Set quotas to reduce farm production and force prices upwards
2. Government destroyed surplus produce and gave farmers compensation for lost production
3. Helped farmers modernise and use methods that would protect the soil
4. Helped some farmers pay their mortgages
What problem did the AAA create?
Farm modernisation put more farm workers out of work
Which two organisations were set up by the National Industrial Recovery Act?
Public Works Administration
National Recovery Administration
What did the PWA do?
Used government money to build schools, roads, dams, bridges and airports
What did the NRA do?
Improved working conditions in industry e.g. outlawing child labour, set fair wages.
Voluntary – firms could choose to join
How did businesses show they had signed up to the NRA?
They could use the blue eagle as a symbol of presidential approval
How many employers joined the NRA?
Over 2 million
How did the Home Owners Loan Corporation help Americans?
Took over the mortgages of middle-income Americans who were struggling to pay mortgages, so banks didn’t repossess their homes
How many Americans were helped by the Home Owners Loan Corporation?
HOLC took over 1 million mortgages at better interest rates than banks
1933-36: 20% of homeowners ‘rescued’ by HOLC – 80% successfully repaid HOLC mortgages
Why was the Tennessee Valley Authority created?
Tennessee Valley flooded during wet season, and farming land turned into a dust bowl during dry season. TVA set up to combat these problems.
What was the main work of the TVA?
Built dams on the Tennessee River:
a. made it possible to irrigate (water) dried-out land
b. provided electricity
c. provided jobs
What were Roosevelt’s ‘fireside chats’?
Radio broadcasts where Roosevelt would explain to the nation what he was doing and why
When and how often were Roosevelt’s ‘fireside chats’?
How many Americans tuned into Roosevelt’s ‘fireside chats’?
Why did some Democrats criticise the New Deal?
They claimed it wasn’t doing enough
Who was the main politician who argued the New Deal wasn’t doing enough?
What ideas did Huey Long put forward?
‘Share our Wealth’ scheme:
1. Limit personal wealth to $3 million.
2. Share taxes equally.
Why did the Republicans, and most businesses, criticise the New Deal?
1. They argued it was doing / interfering too much in business.
2. Cost too much – resented paying higher taxes
3. Said Roosevelt was taking America on the path to socialism
What aspects of the economy did the New Deal interfere with?
1. Created jobs
2. Fixed prices
3. Controlled levels of production
4. Dictated working conditions
What is the role of the Supreme Court?
Judge whether laws follow the American Constitution
Who was the Supreme Court dominated by?
Which New Deal laws were judged to be unconstitutional?
National Recovery Administration
Agricultural Adjustment Act
Why were the NRA and AAA declared unconstitutional?
They extended the role of the federal (central) government too far, taking away the power of individual states
How did Roosevelt respond to opposition from the Supreme Court?
‘Court-packing’ - he threatened to appoint 6 extra judges who agreed with his policies, in order to outvote the Republican judges
Why was Roosevelt forced to back down and withdraw his plan to ‘pack’ the Supreme Court?
Made him look like a dictator – he was trying to interfere in the work of the judges