1. What term describes a substance that attacks metals, stonework and skin?
2. Name an acidic solution found in the kitchen.
vinegar or fruit juice, etc.
3. Name an alkaline solution used in the kitchen.
bleach or oven cleaner or soap, etc.
4. What type of substance turns litmus paper red?
5. How does an indicator show the acidity or alkalinity of solutions?
by changing colour
6. What pH values represent alkaline solutions?
above 7 or 8 to 14
7. What happens in all chemical reactions?
new substances are formed
8. What kind of reaction occurs between an acid and an alkali?
9. What do you call a solution that is neither acidic nor alkaline.
10. Give the name and formula of a common laboratory acid.
hydrochloric acid (HCl) or nitric acid (HNO3) or sulfuric acid (H2SO4), etc.
11. Which ion is in excess in all acidic solutions?
hydrogen ions or H+ ions
12. Which ion is in excess in all alkaline solutions?
hydroxide ions or OH– ions
13. What scale is used for measuring acidic and alkaline properties?
the pH scale
14. Name three examples of acid/alkali indicators apart from universal indicator.
litmus, methyl orange and phenolphthalein
15. What would you use to measure pH to one decimal place?
a pH meter
16. What pH values are acidic?
17. What colour is phenolphthalein in a solution with a pH of 2?
18. What happens to the pH as the H+ ion concentration increases?
19. If a solution has the same concentration of hydrogen ions as hydroxide ions, how is it described?
neutral or pH = 7
20. If 2 g of salt is dissolved in 250 cm3 of solution, what is its concentration in g dm–3?
8 g dm–3
21. What word describes a solution that contains a large amount of solute in a small volume of solvent?
22. How can a solution be made more dilute?
by adding solvent/water
23. If 24 g of acid is dissolved in 600 cm3 of solution, what is its concentration in g dm–3?
40 g dm–3
24. What happens when strong acid molecules dissolve in water?
they dissociate completely into ions
25. What kind of reaction occurs between an acid and a base?
26. What happens to the pH of an acid as it reacts with a neutraliser?
27. What is formed when an acid reacts with a base like a metal oxide?
salt + water
28. What acid would be used to make zinc sulfate from zinc oxide?
sulfuric acid (sulphuric acid makes sulphates!)
29. What process can be used to separate an insoluble solid from a liquid?
30. How can a sample of a dissolved salt be obtained from a salt solution?
evaporation of the water