Flashcards in Topic 5- Health, Disease and the Development of Medicines Deck (94):
Which cell structure is found in plant and animal cells but not in bacterial cells?
Give one example of a disease that can be caught from another person.
any communicable/infectious disease, e.g. flu or a cold
Give an example of a disease that is not passed from person to person.
any non-communicable disease, e.g. cancer, diabetes
Name a type of organism that can cause disease.
any one from: bacterium, virus, protist, fungus
Suggest one way in which infectious diseases are spread.
any suitable method, e.g. by sneezing, in air, in water, by touching faeces
What might a doctor give to someone who has a bacterial disease?
Give one symptom of flu.
any one from: high temperature/fever, aches, runny nose, sore throat
What does the immune system do?
protect against infection
Which term describes bacteria that are not harmed by an antibiotic?
Describe one thing you can do to stay healthy.
any suitable answer such as: avoid infection, get regular exercise, eat a good diet, avoid stress
Is alcoholic liver cirrhosis a communicable or non-communicable disease?
Which type of disease is passed from parent to offspring in their genes?
What causes malnutrition?
a poor diet/diet without the right balance of nutrients
What causes a deficiency disease?
not getting enough of a nutrient from food
Give one example of a deficiency disease.
any suitable answer such as anaemia, kwashiorkor, scurvy
Give an example of a lifestyle factor that is linked to disease.
any suitable answer such as diet, exercise, smoking, alcohol consumption
If the amount of alcohol a person drinks increases, how will their risk of liver disease change?
What is the function of the liver that makes it particularly likely to be damaged by alcohol?
It breaks down toxic substances including alcohol.
Describe one problem that alcohol consumption causes for society.
any suitable answer such as cost of treating people with liver disease, loss of working days, increased risk of deaths by drink driving
What is cardiovascular disease?
disease of the heart and/or circulatory system
Is cardiovascular disease communicable or non-communicable?
Name two ways of measuring obesity.
BMI and waist : hip ratio
How does diet affect obesity?
Eating too much increases mass/obesity.
How does exercise affect obesity?
More exercise can decrease obesity.
How is obesity correlated with cardiovascular disease?
Increasing obesity increases the risk of disease.
How is smoking tobacco correlated with cardiovascular disease?
The more a person smokes, the greater the person's risk of cardiovascular disease.
Name two different types of treatment for cardiovascular disease.
any two from: bypass surgery or stent as to prevent blood clots or reduce blood pressure; lifestyle changes smoking, increasing exercise or changing diet
What is a pathogen?
a microorganism that causes disease in/harms the body
Are diseases caused by pathogens communicable or non-communicable?
Which type of pathogen is HIV?
Which type of pathogen causes malaria?
Which species is affected by chalara dieback?
Which type of pathogen causes cholera?
Which organ does tuberculosis damage?
Which pathogen causes haemorrhagic fever?
What are the symptoms of malaria?
damage to blood and liver, fever
What are the symptoms of infection by Helicobacter?
How can the spread of chalara dieback be reduced or prevented?
by destroying infected wood
Why does killing mosquitoes help prevent malaria?
It stops the malaria pathogen being spread.
Which type of pathogen can cause stomach ulcers?
Which type of pathogen causes Ebola?
How is Ebola spread?
contact with infected body fluids
How can the spread of cholera be reduced or prevented?
avoid drinking infected water/boil or treat water to kill the cholera pathogen
How could the spread of tuberculosis be reduced or prevented?
by isolating infected people
Which term is used for organisms that spread disease from one host to another?
Which organism carries the pathogen that causes malaria from one host to another?
How does the malarial pathogen get into its host?
mosquito sucks human blood
Name one part of a bacterium that is not found in virus particles.
cell surface membrane/nucleus/cytoplasm, etc.
How do viruses replicate?
take over replication processes in cells
Triple only- Which two parts are found in all viruses?
capsid/protein coat, genetic material
Triple only-What can be found in all viruses, bacteria, plant cells and animal cells?
Triple only- Put these in order of size, starting with the largest: bacterium, virus, animal cell. (animal cell, bacterium, virus)
animal cell, bacterium, virus
Triple only-Name one example of a virus.
any suitable virus, e.g. HIV, flu, measles, Ebola
Triple only-Why do viruses need to infect cells?
to make more viruses/replicate
Triple only-Some viruses have two pathways in their life cycle. In which pathway is the virus’ genetic material inserted into the cell’s genetic material?
Triple only- In which pathway are cells damaged or destroyed as new viruses leave them?
Triple only- What is the formula for calculating the cross-sectional area of a cylinder?
Triple only- Which outer layer of leaves and stems can help to keep pathogens out of plant tissues?
Triple only- Name one medicine used to treat human illness that has been developed from a substance taken from plants.
to treat human illness that has been developed from a substance taken from any suitable medicine, such as: aspirin, morphine, artemisinin
Triple only- Which outer layer of leaves is a physical barrier to plant pathogens?
Triple only- Name a physical barrier that all plant cells have to pathogens.
Triple only- Name one chemical defence that plants use against pests or pathogens.
any one suitable, e.g. poison, repellent
Triple only-Which disease is the plant substance artemisinin used to treat?
Name one symptom of disease that the medicine aspirin is used to relieve.
any one suitable, e.g. reduce fever, soothe aches, painkiller
Triple only- Which term describes methods used to kill microorganisms on equipment before carrying out experiments with bacteria, fungi or cells?
Triple only- Which piece of equipment could be used to kill microorganisms on glassware or in growth media?
Triple only- Describe one way that you could keep unwanted microorganisms out of Petri dishes and culture vials during an experiment.
keep them covered
Triple only- What is a visible symptom of chalara ash dieback disease?
lesions on bark, or crown dieback
Triple only- Apart from disease, what could cause a plant’s leaves to go yellow?
any suitable answer involving an environmental cause, such as drought, flooding, too much heat, lack of a nutrient
Which barrier to infection covers the body?
Why does that barrier protect against infection?
thick/difficult for pathogens to get through
How are trapped pathogens moved out of the lungs?
movement of cilia
How does the chemical defence in the stomach help to protect against infection?
It is highly acidic, which kills many pathogens.
Which chemical defence against infection is found in tears and saliva?
How does this chemical defence protect against infection?
The enzyme breaks down bacterial cell walls.
How are Chlamydia and HIV transmitted?
sexually transmitted infections/STIs
Explain one way that the spread of Chlamydia or HIV could be reduced or prevented.
any answer that indicates prevention of contact with sexual fluids, or infected breast milk to a baby
Which type of blood cell is important in the immune response?
white blood cell/lymphocyte
What name is given to the molecules on pathogens that the immune system responds to?
Which cells are left in the blood after an infection has been cleared?
What is the function of the cells left in the blood after infection?
to protect against further infection by the same pathogen
Does immunity to one pathogen make you immune to other pathogens?
Give two ways that a secondary response differs from a primary response to an infection.
faster and much larger production of antibodies
Which name is given to the inactive form of a pathogen used in immunisation?
Why are people immunised against diseases?
to stop them being ill if they are infected with particular pathogens
Which medicines are used to treat infections caused by bacteria?
When possible new medicines are being developed, what are they tested on in the first stage of testing?
Why can antibiotics help to cure bacterial infections?
they kill bacteria/inhibit bacterial growth
Why don’t antibiotics have the same effect on human cells as they have on bacteria?
Why can antibiotics not be used against viral infections?
viruses have no cell processes
Name one type of white blood cell that attacks bacteria.
Given one reason why new medicines are first tested on cell or tissue cultures.
any one from: to make sure they are safe/get into cells/help diseased cells get better
Which type of organism are the clinical stages of testing carried out on?