Topic 5- Health, Disease and the Development of Medicines Flashcards Preview

Edexcel GCSE Biology > Topic 5- Health, Disease and the Development of Medicines > Flashcards

Flashcards in Topic 5- Health, Disease and the Development of Medicines Deck (94):
1

Which cell structure is found in plant and animal cells but not in bacterial cells?

nucleus


2

Give one example of a disease that can be caught from another person.

any communicable/infectious disease, e.g. flu or a cold

3

Give an example of a disease that is not passed from person to person.

any non-communicable disease, e.g. cancer, diabetes

4

Name a type of organism that can cause disease.

any one from: bacterium, virus, protist, fungus

5

Suggest one way in which infectious diseases are spread.

any suitable method, e.g. by sneezing, in air, in water, by touching faeces

6

What might a doctor give to someone who has a bacterial disease?

antibiotic

7

Give one symptom of flu.

any one from: high temperature/fever, aches, runny nose, sore throat

8

What does the immune system do?

protect against infection

9

Which term describes bacteria that are not harmed by an antibiotic?

antibiotic resistant

10

Describe one thing you can do to stay healthy.

any suitable answer such as: avoid infection, get regular exercise, eat a good diet, avoid stress

11

Is alcoholic liver cirrhosis a communicable or non-communicable disease?

non-communicable

12

Which type of disease is passed from parent to offspring in their genes?

genetic disease

13

What causes malnutrition?

a poor diet/diet without the right balance of nutrients

14

What causes a deficiency disease?

not getting enough of a nutrient from food

15

Give one example of a deficiency disease.

any suitable answer such as anaemia, kwashiorkor, scurvy

16

Give an example of a lifestyle factor that is linked to disease.

any suitable answer such as diet, exercise, smoking, alcohol consumption

17

If the amount of alcohol a person drinks increases, how will their risk of liver disease change?

increase

18

What is the function of the liver that makes it particularly likely to be damaged by alcohol?

It breaks down toxic substances including alcohol.

19

Describe one problem that alcohol consumption causes for society.

any suitable answer such as cost of treating people with liver disease, loss of working days, increased risk of deaths by drink driving

20

What is cardiovascular disease?

disease of the heart and/or circulatory system

21

Is cardiovascular disease communicable or non-communicable?

non-communicable

22

Name two ways of measuring obesity.

BMI and waist : hip ratio

23

How does diet affect obesity?

Eating too much increases mass/obesity.

24

How does exercise affect obesity?

More exercise can decrease obesity.

25

How is obesity correlated with cardiovascular disease?

Increasing obesity increases the risk of disease.

26

How is smoking tobacco correlated with cardiovascular disease?

The more a person smokes, the greater the person's risk of cardiovascular disease.

27

Name two different types of treatment for cardiovascular disease.

any two from: bypass surgery or stent as to prevent blood clots or reduce blood pressure; lifestyle changes smoking, increasing exercise or changing diet

28

What is a pathogen?

a microorganism that causes disease in/harms the body

29

Are diseases caused by pathogens communicable or non-communicable?

communicable

30

Which type of pathogen is HIV?

virus

31

Which type of pathogen causes malaria?

protist

32

Which species is affected by chalara dieback?

ash trees

33

Which type of pathogen causes cholera?

bacterium

34

Which organ does tuberculosis damage?

lungs

35

Which pathogen causes haemorrhagic fever?

Ebola virus

36

What are the symptoms of malaria?

damage to blood and liver, fever

37

What are the symptoms of infection by Helicobacter?

stomach ulcers

38

How can the spread of chalara dieback be reduced or prevented?

by destroying infected wood

39

Why does killing mosquitoes help prevent malaria?

It stops the malaria pathogen being spread.

40

Which type of pathogen can cause stomach ulcers?

bacterium, Helicobacter

41

Which type of pathogen causes Ebola?

virus

42

How is Ebola spread?

contact with infected body fluids

43

How can the spread of cholera be reduced or prevented?

avoid drinking infected water/boil or treat water to kill the cholera pathogen

44

How could the spread of tuberculosis be reduced or prevented?

by isolating infected people

45

Which term is used for organisms that spread disease from one host to another?

vector

46

Which organism carries the pathogen that causes malaria from one host to another?

mosquito

47

How does the malarial pathogen get into its host?

mosquito sucks human blood

48

Name one part of a bacterium that is not found in virus particles.

cell surface membrane/nucleus/cytoplasm, etc.

49

How do viruses replicate?

take over replication processes in cells

50

Triple only- Which two parts are found in all viruses?

capsid/protein coat, genetic material

51

Triple only-What can be found in all viruses, bacteria, plant cells and animal cells?

genetic material/genes

52

Triple only- Put these in order of size, starting with the largest: bacterium, virus, animal cell. (animal cell, bacterium, virus)

animal cell, bacterium, virus

53

Triple only-Name one example of a virus.

any suitable virus, e.g. HIV, flu, measles, Ebola

54

Triple only-Why do viruses need to infect cells?

to make more viruses/replicate

55

Triple only-Some viruses have two pathways in their life cycle. In which pathway is the virus’ genetic material inserted into the cell’s genetic material?

lysogenic

56

Triple only- In which pathway are cells damaged or destroyed as new viruses leave them?

lytic

57

Triple only- What is the formula for calculating the cross-sectional area of a cylinder?

πr2

58

Triple only- Which outer layer of leaves and stems can help to keep pathogens out of plant tissues?

cuticle

59

Triple only- Name one medicine used to treat human illness that has been developed from a substance taken from plants.

to treat human illness that has been developed from a substance taken from any suitable medicine, such as: aspirin, morphine, artemisinin

60

Triple only- Which outer layer of leaves is a physical barrier to plant pathogens?

cuticle

61

Triple only- Name a physical barrier that all plant cells have to pathogens.

cell wall

62

Triple only- Name one chemical defence that plants use against pests or pathogens.

any one suitable, e.g. poison, repellent

63

Triple only-Which disease is the plant substance artemisinin used to treat?

malaria

64

Name one symptom of disease that the medicine aspirin is used to relieve.

any one suitable, e.g. reduce fever, soothe aches, painkiller

65

Triple only- Which term describes methods used to kill microorganisms on equipment before carrying out experiments with bacteria, fungi or cells?

aseptic techniques

66

Triple only- Which piece of equipment could be used to kill microorganisms on glassware or in growth media?

autoclave


67

Triple only- Describe one way that you could keep unwanted microorganisms out of Petri dishes and culture vials during an experiment.

keep them covered

68

Triple only- What is a visible symptom of chalara ash dieback disease?

lesions on bark, or crown dieback

69

Triple only- Apart from disease, what could cause a plant’s leaves to go yellow?

any suitable answer involving an environmental cause, such as drought, flooding, too much heat, lack of a nutrient

70

Which barrier to infection covers the body?

skin

71

Why does that barrier protect against infection?

thick/difficult for pathogens to get through

72

How are trapped pathogens moved out of the lungs?

movement of cilia

73

How does the chemical defence in the stomach help to protect against infection?

It is highly acidic, which kills many pathogens.

74

Which chemical defence against infection is found in tears and saliva?

lysozyme

75

How does this chemical defence protect against infection?

The enzyme breaks down bacterial cell walls.

76

How are Chlamydia and HIV transmitted?

sexually transmitted infections/STIs

77

Explain one way that the spread of Chlamydia or HIV could be reduced or prevented.

any answer that indicates prevention of contact with sexual fluids, or infected breast milk to a baby

78

Which type of blood cell is important in the immune response?

white blood cell/lymphocyte

79

What name is given to the molecules on pathogens that the immune system responds to?

antigen

80

Which cells are left in the blood after an infection has been cleared?

memory lymphocytes

81

What is the function of the cells left in the blood after infection?

to protect against further infection by the same pathogen

82

Does immunity to one pathogen make you immune to other pathogens?

no [usually]

83

Give two ways that a secondary response differs from a primary response to an infection.

faster and much larger production of antibodies

84

Which name is given to the inactive form of a pathogen used in immunisation?

vaccine

85

Why are people immunised against diseases?

to stop them being ill if they are infected with particular pathogens

86

Which medicines are used to treat infections caused by bacteria?

antibiotics

87

When possible new medicines are being developed, what are they tested on in the first stage of testing?

cell/tissue cultures

88

Why can antibiotics help to cure bacterial infections?

they kill bacteria/inhibit bacterial growth

89

Why don’t antibiotics have the same effect on human cells as they have on bacteria?

different structure/processes

90

Why can antibiotics not be used against viral infections?

viruses have no cell processes

91

Name one type of white blood cell that attacks bacteria.

lymphocyte/phagocyte

92

Given one reason why new medicines are first tested on cell or tissue cultures.

any one from: to make sure they are safe/get into cells/help diseased cells get better

93

Which type of organism are the clinical stages of testing carried out on?

humans/people

94

Which name is given to the unintended effects of a medicine, some of which may be harmful?

side effects