Which cells in the nervous system detect changes?
Sense organs contain receptors cells. Give one example of a sense organ.
e.g. eye, ear, nose, tongue, skin
Which parts of the body cause the response to a stimulus?
Give an example of an effector.
one of: muscle, gland
In what form is information transmitted in the nervous system?
How are soluble chemical substances (e.g. digested food molecules) carried around the body?
in the blood/plasma
Name one hormone produced in the male reproductive system.
Name one hormone produced by ovaries.
one of: oestrogen, progesterone
Which general name is given to an organ that responds to a hormone?
What effect do hormones have on organs that respond to them?
change how the organ is working
What is the name for a gland that produces a hormone?
Name the organ that produces oestrogen.
Name the organ at the base of the brain that produces many hormones.
What is the name for an organ that is affected by a hormone?
Name an organ that is affected by growth hormone.
How do hormones travel around the body?
in the blood
Which hormone brings about changes in a boy’s body during puberty?
Higher and Triple only- Where is adrenalin made?
Higher and Triple only- Describe one effect of adrenalin on the body.
any suitable effect, such as: increases heart rate, increases breathing rate, increases blood pressure, increases blood sugar concentration, dilates pupils
Higher and Triple only- What is the role of thyroxine in the body?
to control metabolic rate
What name is given to a substance produced in the body that changes how its target organs work?
Name the endocrine gland that produces testosterone.
How does testosterone get from where it is made to its target organs?
Name the hormone that produces changes in girls as they become women.
Higher and Triple only- In which gland is thyroxine produced?
Higher and Triple only- What is the function of thyroxine in the body?
controls metabolic rate
Higher and Triple only-Which hormone controls the fight or flight response?
Higher and Triple only- Which term describes when a change in a system causes the opposite change, returning the system to a normal level?
What name is given to the cycle of changes in a woman’s reproductive system that happens every month?
What name is given to methods that prevent fertilisation?
Which term describes the cycle of changes in a woman’s body that happens about every 28 days?
On approximately which day of the menstrual cycle is an egg cell released from an ovary?
Name two hormones that help to control the menstrual cycle.
two of: oestrogen, progesterone, FSH, LH
State where oestrogen is produced.
How do changes in the blood concentrations of oestrogen and progesterone trigger menstruation?
Which term describes any method used to reduce the chance of pregnancy?
Give one example of a physical barrier method of contraception.
any one suitable method, such as: condom, diaphragm/cap
Which endocrine organ produces the hormones FSH and LH?
A surge in blood concentration of which hormone triggers the release of an egg from an ovary?
Which three-letter abbreviation is used to describe a method of increasing the chance of pregnancy by fertilising an egg cell outside the body?
In the menstrual cycle, what usually happens at about day 14?
What change in the concentrations of oestrogen and progesterone causes menstruation?
Concentrations of both hormones decres menstruation? (Concentrations of both hormones decrease.
How does use of a condom during sexual activity help to reduce the risk of pregnancy?
prevents sperm reaching the egg
How does the combined contraceptive pill help to reduce the risk of pregnancy?
one of: contains hormones that prevent ovulation/reduces chance of sperm reaching egg
Higher and Triple only- A surge in concentration of which hormone triggers ovulation?
Higher and Triple only- Which hormone stimulates the growth and maturation of an egg follicle?
Higher and Triple only- Which hormone treatment can be given to women who rarely ovulate, to increase their chance of ovulation?
Which term means maintaining a constant internal environment?
What effect does eating food have on blood glucose concentration?
What effect does exercise have on blood glucose concentration?
Which hormone(s) control(s) blood glucose concentration?
insulin, [Higher + Triple only- glucagon]
Which endocrine gland produces this hormone/H these hormones?
What happens to glucose taken into liver cells as a response to a hormone?
changed to glycogen
What causes type 1 diabetes?
no insulin produced
What type of treatment must someone with type 1 diabetes have for the rest of their lives?
injection of insulin
What causes type 2 diabetes?
either not enough insulin produced, or insulin target cells do not respond properly
Which hormone reduces blood glucose concentration?
What are the target cells for insulin?
liver and muscle cells
What is the condition in which a person does not produce insulin?
type 1 diabetes
What is the condition in which a person does not produce enough insulin or their target cells do not respond properly to it?
type 2 diabetes
What effect does exercise have on blood glucose concentration?
What might a doctor suggest diabetics reduce in their diet?
How is body mass correlated with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes?
positive correlation/risk increases as mass increases
How does the body respond to being too cold?
shivering/goosebumps/reduction of blood flow near the skin
How does the body respond to being too hot?
sweating/increased blood flow near the skin
Triple only- Which term means control of body temperature?
Triple only- Which part of the body monitors and controls body temperature?
Triple only- In which layer of the skin are sweat glands?
Triple only- How does sweat on the skin help to cool the body?
It evaporates/transfers ‘heat’ from body to surroundings.
Triple only- What causes goosebumps?
contraction of hair erector muscles
Triple only- Which term means narrowing of blood vessels?
Triple only- When the body is too cold, what happens to increase the release of energy inside the body, causing warming?
shivering of muscles
Triple only- What effect would too high a body temperature have on enzymes?
slow or stop them working
Triple only- Name two organs of the urinary system.
any two from: kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra
Triple only- Which term means control of body water content?
Triple only- What is controlled during osmoregulation?
body water content
Triple only- How does osmoregulation protect animal cells?
prevents too much gain/loss of water [which could damage their membranes or stop processes in the cytoplasm from working]
Triple only- Which body system contains these organs: bladder, ureters, kidneys?
Triple only- In which organ is urine made?
Triple only- In which organ is urea made?
Triple only- What does urea come from?
breakdown of excess amino acids
Triple only- Which treatment for kidney failure exchanges substances between the blood and a fluid to restore normal blood concentrations?
Triple only- Name one other treatment for kidney failure.
Triple only- Which two processes produce urine inside the kidney?
filtration and reabsorption
Triple only- ADH is the hormone that controls the amount of water that leaves the body in urine. Where is ADH produced?