Topic 7- Animal Coordination, Control and Homeostasis Flashcards Preview

Edexcel GCSE Biology > Topic 7- Animal Coordination, Control and Homeostasis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Topic 7- Animal Coordination, Control and Homeostasis Deck (85):
1

Which cells in the nervous system detect changes?


receptor cells

2

Sense organs contain receptors cells. Give one example of a sense organ.

e.g. eye, ear, nose, tongue, skin


3

Which parts of the body cause the response to a stimulus?

effectors

4

Give an example of an effector.

one of: muscle, gland

5

In what form is information transmitted in the nervous system?

(electrical) impulses

6

How are soluble chemical substances (e.g. digested food molecules) carried around the body?

in the blood/plasma

7

Name one hormone produced in the male reproductive system.

testosterone

8

Name one hormone produced by ovaries.

one of: oestrogen, progesterone

9

Which general name is given to an organ that responds to a hormone?

target organ

10

What effect do hormones have on organs that respond to them?

change how the organ is working

11

What is the name for a gland that produces a hormone?

endocrine gland

12

Name the organ that produces oestrogen.

ovary

13

Name the organ at the base of the brain that produces many hormones.

pituitary gland

14

What is the name for an organ that is affected by a hormone?

target organ

15

Name an organ that is affected by growth hormone.

bones/muscles

16

How do hormones travel around the body?

in the blood

17

Which hormone brings about changes in a boy’s body during puberty?

testosterone

18

Higher and Triple only- Where is adrenalin made?

adrenal glands

19

Higher and Triple only- Describe one effect of adrenalin on the body.

any suitable effect, such as: increases heart rate, increases breathing rate, increases blood pressure, increases blood sugar concentration, dilates pupils

20

Higher and Triple only- What is the role of thyroxine in the body?

to control metabolic rate

21

What name is given to a substance produced in the body that changes how its target organs work?

hormone

22

Name the endocrine gland that produces testosterone.

testis/testes

23

How does testosterone get from where it is made to its target organs?

in blood

24

Name the hormone that produces changes in girls as they become women.

oestrogen

25

Higher and Triple only- In which gland is thyroxine produced?

thyroid gland

26

Higher and Triple only- What is the function of thyroxine in the body?

controls metabolic rate

27

Higher and Triple only-Which hormone controls the fight or flight response?

adrenalin

28

Higher and Triple only- Which term describes when a change in a system causes the opposite change, returning the system to a normal level?

negative feedback

29

What name is given to the cycle of changes in a woman’s reproductive system that happens every month?

menstrual cycle

30

What name is given to methods that prevent fertilisation?

contraception

31

Which term describes the cycle of changes in a woman’s body that happens about every 28 days?

menstrual cycle


32

On approximately which day of the menstrual cycle is an egg cell released from an ovary?


day 14

33

Name two hormones that help to control the menstrual cycle.

two of: oestrogen, progesterone, FSH, LH

34

State where oestrogen is produced.

ovaries

35

How do changes in the blood concentrations of oestrogen and progesterone trigger menstruation?

decrease.

36

Which term describes any method used to reduce the chance of pregnancy?

contraception

37

Give one example of a physical barrier method of contraception.


any one suitable method, such as: condom, diaphragm/cap

38

Which endocrine organ produces the hormones FSH and LH?

pituitary gland

39

A surge in blood concentration of which hormone triggers the release of an egg from an ovary?

LH

40

Which three-letter abbreviation is used to describe a method of increasing the chance of pregnancy by fertilising an egg cell outside the body?

IVF

41

In the menstrual cycle, what usually happens at about day 14?

ovulation

42

What change in the concentrations of oestrogen and progesterone causes menstruation?

Concentrations of both hormones decres menstruation? (Concentrations of both hormones decrease.

43

How does use of a condom during sexual activity help to reduce the risk of pregnancy?

prevents sperm reaching the egg

44

How does the combined contraceptive pill help to reduce the risk of pregnancy?

one of: contains hormones that prevent ovulation/reduces chance of sperm reaching egg

45

Higher and Triple only- A surge in concentration of which hormone triggers ovulation?

LH

46

Higher and Triple only- Which hormone stimulates the growth and maturation of an egg follicle?


FSH


47

Higher and Triple only- Which hormone treatment can be given to women who rarely ovulate, to increase their chance of ovulation?

clomifene therapy

48

Which term means maintaining a constant internal environment?

homeostasis

49

What effect does eating food have on blood glucose concentration?

increases

50

What effect does exercise have on blood glucose concentration?

decreases

51

Which hormone(s) control(s) blood glucose concentration?

insulin, [Higher + Triple only- glucagon]

52

Which endocrine gland produces this hormone/H these hormones?

pancreas

53

What happens to glucose taken into liver cells as a response to a hormone?

changed to glycogen

54

What causes type 1 diabetes?

no insulin produced

55

What type of treatment must someone with type 1 diabetes have for the rest of their lives?

injection of insulin

56

What causes type 2 diabetes?

either not enough insulin produced, or insulin target cells do not respond properly

57

Which hormone reduces blood glucose concentration?

insulin

58

What are the target cells for insulin?

liver and muscle cells

59

What is the condition in which a person does not produce insulin?

type 1 diabetes

60

What is the condition in which a person does not produce enough insulin or their target cells do not respond properly to it?

type 2 diabetes

61

What effect does exercise have on blood glucose concentration?

reduces it

62

What might a doctor suggest diabetics reduce in their diet?

sugar/glucose

63

How is body mass correlated with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes?

positive correlation/risk increases as mass increases

64

How does the body respond to being too cold?

shivering/goosebumps/reduction of blood flow near the skin

65

How does the body respond to being too hot?

sweating/increased blood flow near the skin

66

Triple only- Which term means control of body temperature?

thermoregulation

67

Triple only- Which part of the body monitors and controls body temperature?

hypothalamus

68

Triple only- In which layer of the skin are sweat glands?

dermis

69

Triple only- How does sweat on the skin help to cool the body?

It evaporates/transfers ‘heat’ from body to surroundings.

70

Triple only- What causes goosebumps?

contraction of hair erector muscles

71

Triple only- Which term means narrowing of blood vessels?

vasoconstriction

72

Triple only- When the body is too cold, what happens to increase the release of energy inside the body, causing warming?

shivering of muscles

73

Triple only- What effect would too high a body temperature have on enzymes?

slow or stop them working

74

Triple only- Name two organs of the urinary system.

any two from: kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra

75

Triple only- Which term means control of body water content?

osmoregulation

76

Triple only- What is controlled during osmoregulation?

body water content

77

Triple only- How does osmoregulation protect animal cells?

prevents too much gain/loss of water [which could damage their membranes or stop processes in the cytoplasm from working]

78

Triple only- Which body system contains these organs: bladder, ureters, kidneys?

urinary/excretory system

79

Triple only- In which organ is urine made?

kidneys

80

Triple only- In which organ is urea made?

liver

81

Triple only- What does urea come from?

breakdown of excess amino acids

82

Triple only- Which treatment for kidney failure exchanges substances between the blood and a fluid to restore normal blood concentrations?

dialysis

83

Triple only- Name one other treatment for kidney failure.

transplant

84

Triple only- Which two processes produce urine inside the kidney?

filtration and reabsorption

85

Triple only- ADH is the hormone that controls the amount of water that leaves the body in urine. Where is ADH produced?

pituitary gland