1 What is the nearest star to the Earth?
2 Name two types of body found in the Solar System.
two of: the Sun/star, planets, dwarf planets, asteroids, comets, moons/satellites
3 What is the name for the path that a planet follows around the Sun?
4 How many planets are there in the Solar System?
5 Apart from Earth, name two other planets in the Solar System.
any from Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
6 What is a moon?
a natural body that orbits a planet
7 Name one type of body, other than a planet, that orbits the Sun.
comet, asteroid or dwarf planet
8 Why can we see planets in the night sky?
They reflect light from the Sun.
9 What shape is the orbit of a planet around the Sun?
elliptical, but almost circular
10 Name an instrument that can be used to study the stars and planets from the Earth.
11 What is the geocentric model of the Solar System?
the idea that the Sun and all the planets are moving around the Earth
12 Who suggested the geocentric model?
13 What is the heliocentric model?
the idea that everything in the Solar System orbits the Sun
14 Who is best known for suggesting the heliocentric model?
15 Name the planets in order, starting with the one nearest the Sun.
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
16 Put these in order of size, starting with the smallest: dwarf planet, planet, asteroid
asteroid, dwarf planet, planet
17 Why are some telescopes put onto satellites?
because the Earth’s atmosphere absorbs some wavelengths of EM radiation / to put them above the clouds or dust in atmosphere
18 Name one factor that the weight of an object depends on.
mass or gravitational field strength
19 What is an artificial satellite?
something made by humans in orbit around a planet or moon
20 What shape is the orbit of a comet?
21 What does g stand for?
gravitational field strength
22 What are the units for g?
23 Name two factors that affect the weight of an object.
mass and gravitational field strength
24 Name two factors that affect the surface gravity of a planet.
mass and radius
25 How does mass affect g?
greater mass, greater g
26 What happens if a satellite speeds up in its orbit?
moves to a higher orbit
27 Why is the velocity of a satellite always changing?
velocity is a vector
28 Name a type of star
any from main sequence star, red giant, red supergiant, white/red/brown/black dwarf, black hole, neutron star, etc.
29 What reactions happen inside the Sun?
nuclear / fusion reactions
30 What is the main element that is used in the fusion reactions in the Sun?
31 What is a nebula?
a cloud of dust and gas
32 What is a protostar?
a contracting cloud of gas that is heating up
33 At what stage in its life cycle is the Sun?
34 What is the next stage in the Sun’s life cycle?
35 How will the Sun end its life cycle?
36 What factor decides whether a star follows the same life cycle as the Sun?
37 For a high-mass star, what is formed after a supernova?
black hole or neutron star
38 What does the pitch of a sound describe?
how high or low the sound is
39 What determines the pitch of a sound?
frequency/wavelength of the waves
40 How does a sound change if the object is moving towards you?
higher pitch / shorter wavelength / higher frequency
41 What happens to the pitch of a sound if the source is moving away from you?
42 What is the name for this effect?
43 What happens to the frequency of light waves from a star moving towards us?
44 What happens to the wavelength of light from a star moving away from us?
45 What is the name for the change in wavelength in the light from a star moving away from us?
46 How does the red-shift of a galaxy depend on its distance from us?
More distant galaxies have greater red-shifts.
47 What does the red-shift of galaxies tell us?
The Universe is expanding.
48 Name one theory about the origin of the Universe.
Big Bang or Steady State
49 Which theory explains the expansion of the Universe?
both of them
50 Which theory is the one accepted by scientists today?