TOPIC C3 and TOPIC 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in TOPIC C3 and TOPIC 4 Deck (73):
1

What Is limiting reactants

If one reactant gets completely used up in a reaction before the rest then the reaction will stop

2

When will reactions stop

When I’ve reactant is used up

3

What is the reaction called when it’s used up

Limiting reactant (because it limits the amount of product that’s formed

4

How much product is made in limiting factor

It’s directly proportional to the amount of limiting reactant

5

What happens to the particles when more reactant is added

There will be more reactant particles to take part in the reaction, which means more product particles

6

What is concentration

The amount of a substance in a certain volume of a solution

7

What are the units that concentration if measured in

Mass/units of volume

8

How do you we calculate the concentration

Concentration = mass of solute /volume of solvent

9

What do we use to test a pH of the solution

Using an indicator

10

What is the pH scale

It is a measure of how acidic or alkaline a solution is

11

What does a neutral substance

pH 7

12

What is an indicator

It is due that changed colour depending on whether it’s above Or below a certain pH

13

Indicators aren’t that accurate which other measurement can be used to measure the pH

A pH probe

14

He does a pH prove work

It’s is attacked to a pH meter
The probe is place in the solution you are measuring and the pH is given on a digital display as a numerical value (more accurate)

15

What is an acid

It is a substance that forms aqueous solution with a pH of less than 7

16

What is a base

It is a substance with a pH greater than 7

17

What is an alkali

It’s a base that dissolved in water to form a solution with a pH greater that 7

18

What is the equation for neutralisation

Acid+base➡️salt +water

19

What do acids produce in water

They ionise in equeous solution- they produce hydrogen ions

20

What do strong acids do in water

They ionise completely in water

21

What is the general formula for the pH scale

Factor H+ ion concentration changes by =10-x

22

If bothers strong acid and weak acid have the same concentration what does it mean

The pH of a strong acid is always less than get pH of a weaker acid of they have the same concentration

23

Why do alkalis react with acid

To neutralise reactions

24

What do metal oxides and metal hydroxide react with

They react with acids to form salt and water

25

Acid + Metal Oxide ➡️ salt + water
Or
Acid + Metal hydroxide ➡️salt +water

Formulas to making salt and water

26

What do acids and metal carbonates product

Carbon dioxide

27

What is the formula of metal carbonate

Acid + Metal Carbonate ➡️salt + water + Carbon Dioxide

28

How do you make copper chloride

Hydrochloric acid and copper oxide

29

How can you make soluble salts

By using an insoluble base

30

What does the reactivity series tells us

The reactivity series lists metals order of their reactivity towards other substances

31

How is the reactivity of metals determine where it’s put on the list

By how easily they lose electrons- forming positive ions.

32

If a metal is high up in the reactivity metal what does that tell us

The more easily they form positive ions and the more easily it reacts with water or acid

33

Like the reactivity series in order

Potassium
Sodium
Lithium
Magnesium
Carbon
Zinc
Iron
Hydrogen
Copper

34

What happens to metals when they react with water and acid

They lost electrons and form positive ions

35

What do some metals react with acids to make

A salt and hydrogen gas

36

If a metal is reactive what will happen

The faster the reaction will go

37

How can you also investigate the reactivity of metals

By measuring the temperature change the reaction with an acid or water over a set time period

38

If the same mass and surface areas of metals each time what happens to the reactivity of the metals

The metals get more reactant, the greater the temperature change should be

39

What do metals also React with

Water

40

What do the reaction of metals with water show

The reactivity of metals
Metal + Water ➡️ Metal Hydroxide+Hydrogen

41

Which metals will react with water

Potassium,sodium,lithium and calcium will react with water

42

Which metals will not react with water

Zinc, iron, and copper won’t react with water

43

Give an example of oxidation

Metals like iron and aluminium react with oxygen to form oxide

44

What is a reaction that separates a metal from its oxide is called what

Reduction reaction

45

What is the formation of metal ore

Oxidation = Gain of oxygen
Eg magnesium is oxidised to make magnesium oxide

46

What is the extraction of metal

Reduction = Loss of Oxygen
Eg copper oxide Is reduced to copper

47

How can some metals be extracted from their ores chemically

By reduction using carbon

48

What determines if a metal should be reduced with carbon

The position of the metal in the reactivity series

49

How are metals higher than carbon in the reactivity series extracted

By using electrolysis which is very expensive as lots of energy if required to melt the ore and produce the required current

50

How are Metals below carbon in the reactivity series extracted

Reduction using carbon

51

What metal metal is so unreactive that they are in the earth as the metal itself

Gold, it mined as its elemental form

52

What is the electrons called when they are lost

Oxidation

53

What is a gain of electrons

Reduction

54

What is “REDOX” a combination of and what does it mean

REDUCTION AND OXIDATION
and it happens at the same time

55

What does electrolysis use to cause a reaction

Electrical current

56

During electrolysis what is passed through an electrolyte

Electric current
(A molten or dissolved ionic compound)

57

Which side will the positive ions move in the electrolyte

They will move towards the cathode and gain electrons

58

Which side will the the negative ions move to in the electrolyte

They will move towards the anode and lose electrons

59

What change does this create through the electrolyte

It creates a flow of charge as the ions travel to the electrodes

60

What is an electrolyte

It’s a liquid or solution that can conduct electricity

61

What is an electrode

It is a solid that conducts electricity and is submerged in the electrolyte

62

Why can’t ionic solid be electrolysed

Because the ions are in fixed position and can’t move

63

Why can molten ionic compounds be electrolysed

Because the ions can move freely and conduct electricity

64

How are positive metals reduced to the element

They are reduced to the elements at the cathode

65

Negative non-metal ions are oxidised

To the element at the anode

66

What does bauxite contain

Aluminium oxide

67

What is aluminium extracted from

The ore bauxite by electricrolysis

68

What is added to aluminium to lower its boiling point as it has a high boiling point

Cryolite to lower the melting point

69

If the molten mixture contains free ions it will

Conduct electricity

70

What can oxidation mean

The addition of oxygen and reduction can be the removal of oxygen

71

What is a loss of electrons

It's called oxidation

72

What is the gain of of elections

It is called reduction

73

What is special about reduction and oxidation

At the same time hence the term "REDOX"