Flashcards in Topical Skin Theraputics Deck (55):
What are creams?
Semi-solid emulsification of oil in water
What 2 chemicals do creams contain?
What are 5 features of creams?
Easy to apply
What are ointments?
Semi-solid grease or oil
Do ointments contain preservative?
What are the 4 main features of ointments
Causes transdermal occlusion => moisturises the skin
Greasy => less cosmetically acceptable
What are lotions?
Suspension/solution of medication in water/alcohol/liquid
What is the disadvantage of lotions?
They can sting when applied if they contain alcohol
What 2 topical therapeutics can be used on hair-bearing areas?
What are gels?
Semi-solid, thickened aqueous solutions containing high molecular weight polymers
What are pastes?
Semi-solid containing finely powdered material
What are pastes often used in?
What preparation should be used on acutely inflamed, red, vesiculating, oozing skin?
What preparation should be used on subacute, chronic, less inflamed skin? 3
What should be used on dry, scaly, thick, lichenified skin? 2
What 3 preparations should be used on generalised eruptions?
What skin conditions should emollients be used on?
All dry and scaly conditions
How do emollients work?
Enhance rehydration of the epidermis
How much emollient should you prescribe per week?
What are the 2 alternative ways in which you can apply emollient?
Wet wraps in xerotic skin
Give 4 prescribing pointers for emollients
Apply immediately after bathing
Apply in direction of hair growth
Fire risk if paraffin based
Use spatula/clean spoon to remove from tub
Describe the application of topical steroids
Thin layer over just affected areas >30 mins before emollient application once/twice daily
What 2 chemicals/additives can increase the penetration of topical steroids?
What are the 2 quantities used to describe application of topical steroids?
1 finger tip unit = 0.5g = 2 hand areas
Whole body = 20-30g
Topical steroids have no value in ____ management
Topical steroids can worsen _____ or ___ ____ => should not be used on them
When are topical steroids good for treating piritus?
If inflammation is causing the itch (not good if the origin of itch is unclear)
What are the 2 contraindications for long term use of steroids? (>7-14 days)
What are the 4 main skin side effects of topical steroids?
Thinning of the skin
Visible/dilated blood vessels
What should be done for long-term monitoring of topical steroids side effects?
Regular optician visits - looking for cataracts and glucoma
What are the 4 main uses for topical steroids?
Non-infective inflammatory dermatoses
What is an example of a mild topical steroid?
What are 2 examples of a moderate topical steroid?
Clobetasone butyrate 0.05%
What are 2 examples of a potent topical steroid?
Betamethasone valerate 0.01%
What is an example of a very potent steroid?
Clobetasol proprionate 0.05%
Where should potent/very potent steroids not be used? 5
Children (without expert opinion)
What should very potent steroids not be used in?
What should moderate steroids not be applied to?
What is the mechanism of calicneurin inhibitors?
Suppress lymphocyte activity
What is the main clinical difference between calicneurin inhibitors and steroids?
CI do not cause thinning of the skin
What are 2 examples of calicneurin inhibitors?
What is the main use for topical calcineurin inhibitors?
Atopic eczema - esp on the face and in children
What do calcineurin inhibitors sometimes cause when applied to the skin?
What are the 2 risks with calcineurin inhibitors?
Increased risk of infection and skin cancer
What are the 2 contraindications for calcineurin inhibitors?
What are the 3 indications for anti-septics?
What is the main use for topical anti-virals?
Herpes simplex cold sores
What are the 2 main uses for oral anti-virals?
Herpes zoster (shingles)
What 2 antifungals are used in candida?
What 2 antifungals are used in dermatophytes (ringworm)?
What antifungal is used for treatment of pityriasis versicolour?
What are the 4 main topical anti-pruitics?
What is the mechanism of action of capsaicin?
Depletes substance P at the nerve endings => decreasing transmission
Gradual build up to effect
What are the 4 main uses for keratolytics?
Removing keratin plaques from the scalp