Topical Skin Theraputics Flashcards Preview

1.1 Dermatology > Topical Skin Theraputics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Topical Skin Theraputics Deck (55):
1

What are creams?

Semi-solid emulsification of oil in water

2

What 2 chemicals do creams contain?

Emulsifier
Preservative

3

What are 5 features of creams?

Cooling
Moisturising
Non-greasy
Easy to apply
Cosmetically acceptable

4

What are ointments?

Semi-solid grease or oil

5

Do ointments contain preservative?

No

6

What are the 4 main features of ointments

Causes transdermal occlusion => moisturises the skin
Greasy => less cosmetically acceptable

7

What are lotions?

Suspension/solution of medication in water/alcohol/liquid

8

What is the disadvantage of lotions?

They can sting when applied if they contain alcohol

9

What 2 topical therapeutics can be used on hair-bearing areas?

Lotions
Gels

10

What are gels?

Semi-solid, thickened aqueous solutions containing high molecular weight polymers

11

What are pastes?

Semi-solid containing finely powdered material

12

What are pastes often used in?

Cooling/soothing bandages

13

What preparation should be used on acutely inflamed, red, vesiculating, oozing skin?

Lotions

14

What preparation should be used on subacute, chronic, less inflamed skin? 3

Lotions
Pastes
Creams

15

What should be used on dry, scaly, thick, lichenified skin? 2

Ointments
Pastes

16

What 3 preparations should be used on generalised eruptions?

Lotions
Creams
Baths

17

What skin conditions should emollients be used on?

All dry and scaly conditions

18

How do emollients work?

Enhance rehydration of the epidermis

19

How much emollient should you prescribe per week?

300-500g

20

What are the 2 alternative ways in which you can apply emollient?

Soap substitute
Wet wraps in xerotic skin

21

Give 4 prescribing pointers for emollients

Apply immediately after bathing
Apply in direction of hair growth
Fire risk if paraffin based
Use spatula/clean spoon to remove from tub

22

Describe the application of topical steroids

Thin layer over just affected areas >30 mins before emollient application once/twice daily

23

What 2 chemicals/additives can increase the penetration of topical steroids?

Urea
Salicylic acid

24

What are the 2 quantities used to describe application of topical steroids?

1 finger tip unit = 0.5g = 2 hand areas
Whole body = 20-30g

25

Topical steroids have no value in ____ management

Urticaria

26

Topical steroids can worsen _____ or ___ ____ => should not be used on them

Ulcerations
Infected lesions

27

When are topical steroids good for treating piritus?

If inflammation is causing the itch (not good if the origin of itch is unclear)

28

What are the 2 contraindications for long term use of steroids? (>7-14 days)

Face application
Children

29

What are the 4 main skin side effects of topical steroids?

Thinning of the skin
Bruising
Stretch marks
Visible/dilated blood vessels

30

What should be done for long-term monitoring of topical steroids side effects?

Regular optician visits - looking for cataracts and glucoma

31

What are the 4 main uses for topical steroids?

Eczema
Psoriasis
Keloid scars
Non-infective inflammatory dermatoses

32

What is an example of a mild topical steroid?

Hydrocortisone 1%

33

What are 2 examples of a moderate topical steroid?

Modrasone
Clobetasone butyrate 0.05%

34

What are 2 examples of a potent topical steroid?

Mometasone
Betamethasone valerate 0.01%

35

What is an example of a very potent steroid?

Clobetasol proprionate 0.05%

36

Where should potent/very potent steroids not be used? 5

Face
Groin
Armpits
Genitals
Children (without expert opinion)

37

What should very potent steroids not be used in?

Psoriasis

38

What should moderate steroids not be applied to?

Eyelids

39

What is the mechanism of calicneurin inhibitors?

Suppress lymphocyte activity

40

What is the main clinical difference between calicneurin inhibitors and steroids?

CI do not cause thinning of the skin

41

What are 2 examples of calicneurin inhibitors?

Tacrolimus
Pimecrolimus

42

What is the main use for topical calcineurin inhibitors?

Atopic eczema - esp on the face and in children

43

What do calcineurin inhibitors sometimes cause when applied to the skin?

Burning sensation

44

What are the 2 risks with calcineurin inhibitors?

Increased risk of infection and skin cancer

45

What are the 2 contraindications for calcineurin inhibitors?

Cold sores
Infective eczema

46

What are the 3 indications for anti-septics?

Recurrent infection
Wound irrigation
Antibiotic resistance

47

What is the main use for topical anti-virals?

Herpes simplex cold sores

48

What are the 2 main uses for oral anti-virals?

Eczema herpeticum
Herpes zoster (shingles)

49

What 2 antifungals are used in candida?

Nystatin
Clotriamzole

50

What 2 antifungals are used in dermatophytes (ringworm)?

Clotriamzole
Terbinafine cream

51

What antifungal is used for treatment of pityriasis versicolour?

Ketoconazole

52

What are the 4 main topical anti-pruitics?

Methanol
Capsaicin
Camphor/phenol
Crotamiton

53

What is the mechanism of action of capsaicin?

Depletes substance P at the nerve endings => decreasing transmission
Gradual build up to effect

54

What are the 4 main uses for keratolytics?

Viral warts
Hyperkeratotic eczema/psoriasis
Corns/calluses
Removing keratin plaques from the scalp

55

What is an example of keratolytics?

Salicylic acid ointment 2-20%